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Full text of "Women's Movement and Feminism in Modern Bulgaria 1850-1940"

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(cpedama na XlX-cpedama na XX eex) 



I 



II 



(1850s-1940s) 












r i 








zx 



* t. % 




*W~. 



:>" 





- 




■ 







MzbtiHuemo ce nocsew,asa Ha 80-zoduuiHUHama 

Ha /\pyyfcecmsomo Ha 6i>AeapKume c suctue o6pa3osaHue, 

dnec BhAzapcKa acoi^uau^un na yHUBepcumemcKume mchu, 

u na 105-zoduiuHUHama na Bi>A2apcKux MencKU cbW3. 



This publication is dedicated to the 80th anniversary 

of the Association of Women University Graduates 

(today known as the Bulgarian Association of University Women) 

as well as to the 105th anniversary of the Bulgarian Women's Union. 



KpacMMMpa /\acKaAOBa 
>Kop>KeTa Ha3i>pcKa 



Krassimira Daskalova 
Georgeta Nazarska 



)KEHCKO ABM^CEHME 
M OEMMHM3MM B ET>ArAPMfl 

(cpedama ua XlX-cpedama ua XX sen) 




WOMEN'S MOVEMENT 

AND FEMINISMS 
IN MODERN BULGARIA 

(1850s-1940s) 















[DflDIDD'DIDQDQ 

B-bArapcKa acoijMauMH Ha yHMBepcMTeTCKMTe menu 
Bulgarian Association of University Women 

Co^mji ♦ Sofia 
2006 



























CnuMKume u doKyMeumume b u3daHuemo ca om cfiondoBeme na U,enmpaAHUH di>p- 
Mcasen apxus u Ha HEKM - B^AzapcKu ucmopunecKU apxuB, Co$ux. 

The photos and documents in the publication are from the funds of the Central State Archi- 
ves and of St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library - Bulgarian Historical Archives, Sofia. 



© KpaciiMMpa FteTpoBa A^CKaAOBa, >Kop>KeTa /\MMMTpOBa Ha3"bpcKa, 2006 
© EAeHa MaHneBa >KeKOBa, xyAO^cecTBeHo o(J)opMAeHMe, 2006 

ISBN-10:954-796-018-0 
ISBN-13:978-954-796~018-3 



MCTOPMHECKM KOHTEKCT 




HISTORICAL CONTEXT 



B-bArapcKOTO >kchcko ABM^ceHMe 
noAynaBa csoiiTe ni>pBM MMnyACM ot 
o6pa30BaHMeTo m couwaAHaTa Aew- 

HOCT. KaKTO OT6eAH3Ba HCMCKaTa MC- 
TOpMHKa TM3eAa Bok, „npMOpMTeT'bT 

Ha o6pa30BaHMeTo" e Me>KAy »eceH- 
iiwaAHMTe xapaKTepMCTMKM Ha KAacw- 
necKOTO >KeHCKO ABM>KeHMe". Bi>npe- 

KM ne MACHTa 3a Heo6xoAMMOCTTa OT 

npeoAOAHBaHe Ha M3oeTaHaAOCTTa Ha 
^ceHMTe npe3 o6pa30BaHne MO)Ke a& ce 
OTKpwe ome b A^MacKMHapcKaTa AMTe- 
paTypa Ha XVIII b., peaAHH crimen 3a 
noAo6pHBaHe Ha cbCTOHHweTO mm ca 
npeAnpne™ eABa npes XIX b. HanaAHa- 
Ta AMHaMMKa Ha 6i>ArapcKOTO jkchcko 
o6pa30BaHMe Mo>Ke Aa 6i>Ae ciamwpaHO 
TaKa: m>pBOTo cseTCKO yHMAHHje 3a mo- 
MMHeTa e cb3AaACHo npe3 1841 r., npe3 
50-Te roAMHM Ha XIX b. Bene CT>mecr- 
ByBaT 35 TaKMBa yHMAMma, a tcxhmht 
6pow AOCTMra 90 npe3 1878 r. 

OopMMpaHeTo Ha 6i>ArapcKaTa Ha- 
iiMOHaAHa MHTeAMreHij[MH m pa^KAaHeTo 
Ha 6T>ArapcKMH nepwoAMHeH nenaT (40- 
Te roAMHM Ha XIX b.) cbiup CTMMyAM- 
paT noHBaTa Ha T.nap. AMTepaTypeH 
(J)eMMHM3i>M, komto aicueHTMpa BT>pxy 
Heo6xoAMMOCTTa ot o6pa30BaHne Ha 

>KeHMTC C MHOrO MaAKO M3KAK)HeHMH 

(hhkoako ^ceHM aBTopKM m npeBOAaHKM) 

„AMTepaTypHMHT (J)eMHHM3'bM" e npo^rea 

Ha MT>>Ke, npMHaAAOKamw io>m mhtcam- 
reHUMOTa, w TOBa e cbBceM pa36wpaeMO, 
KaTo ce MMa npeABMA, **e MaAijMHa ot 
6i>ArapcKMTe TKewd no OHOBa BpeMe ca 



It is not accidental that the Bulgar- 
ian women's movement had its first 
impulses from the spheres of educa- 
tion and social work. The dynamics of 
Bulgarian women's education can be 
sketched as follows: the first secular 
school for girls was founded in 1841; 35 
such schools existed at the beginning 
of the 1850s; their number reached 90 
in 1878, when an independent Bulgar- 
ian State was established. 

The development of the Bulgarian 
national intelligentsia and the birth of 
the Bulgarian periodical press (in the 
1840s) also stimulated the emergence 
of a sort of "literary feminism" among 
some men of letters, who argued for 
the necessity of educating Bulgar- 
ian women on various grounds. Apart 
from few women authors and transla- 
tors, "literary feminism" was associated 
mostly with male representatives of the 
intelligentsia. This was understandable, 
bearing in mind that only a fraction of 
Bulgarian women was literate, and still 
fewer had access to printed media. 
Some influential Bulgarian newspa- 
pers of the time published materials on 
women describing their "miserable and 
debased condition" in public life, com- 
pared to men. Their authors remarked 
that the neglect of women's intellectual 
advance would create impediments to 
the progress and welfare of the nation. 

Like their counterparts in other 
European countries (and in tune with 



6mam rpaMOTHM, a oine no-MaAKa nacT ca 
MMaAM AocT-bn ao nenaTHMTe mcamm. Pe- 

AMqa BAMHTeAHM BT>3pO>KAeHCKM M3Aa- 

hmh ny6AMKyBaT MaTepnaAM, nocBeTemi 
Ha >KeHCKMH noA, Ha6A^raMKM Bi>pxy „He- 
macTHMTe" ycAOBMH Ha ci>mecTByBaHe 
Ha ^<eHMTe m „npMHM3eHOio" mm macto 
b o6mecTBeHMH >kmbot (b cpaBHeHMe c 
TOBa Ha Mi>>KeTe). ABTopwTe Ha noAo6HM 
TeKCTOBe HacTOHBaT, Me npeHe6perBa- 
HeTo Ha MHTCAeKTyaAHMH noTeHi^waA Ha 
HceHMTe 6m cb3AaAo 3anAaxa npeA npo- 
rpeca m pa3BMxweTO Ha ujiAaTa HaijMJL 

riOAo6HO Ha CBOMTe CbBpeMeHHMl^M 

b Apy™ eBponeMCKM cTpaHM (m b toh c 
MAeaxa Ha >K. >K. Pyco, ne „>KeHaTa" Tpa6- 
Ba Aa 6"bAe o6pa30BaHa, 3a Aa CAy>KM no- 

A06pe Ha MHAMBMAyaAHMH „M10K"), 6l>A' 

rapcKMTe AMTepaTypHM MT>>Ke M3noA3BaT 
TpaAMi^MOHaAMCTKM apryMeHTM, 3a Aa 
o6ocHOBaT Heo6xoAMMOcTTa ot o6pa30- 
BaHMe Ha >KeHMTe. >KeHMTe Tpa6BaAO Aa 
6t>A2it o6pa30BaHM, 3a Aa CTaHaT no-AO- 

6pM MaMKM M AOMaKMHM, a CblUO M nOAC3- 
HM M npMHTHM KOMnaHbOHKM Ha CBOMTe 

cbnpy3M (no AyMMTe Ha HeTKO P. CAa- 
BeMKOB: >KeHaTa Aa CTaHe „ao6t>p Apyrap 
Ha MTj^Ka"); o6pa30BaHMeTO cbiuo Tpn6- 




Afo6en KapaeeAOB 

(1834-1879) - nucameA, 
HaUfUouaApeBOAfoUfUOHep 
u Au6epaA; 3acmtnHUK na 
udenma 3a wencua eMan- 
UsUnauuH u pasHonpasue 
na noAOBeme 

Lyuben Karavelov 

(1834-1879) - celebrated 
Bulgarian writer; liberal 
and national revolutionary; 
advocate of women's equal- 
ity, especially with regards 
to education 



Rousseau's idea that women should 
be educated to do personal services 
to individual men), Bulgarian men of 
letters defended women's education 
with traditionalist arguments such as: 
women should be educated in order 
to become better mothers and house- 
wives, as well as useful and nice com- 
panions for their husbands (in Petko 
Slaveikov's words "to become a man's 
good comrade"); education should 
also serve the purpose of mobilizing 
women for the national cause and 
preparing mothers to raise their chil- 
dren as useful citizens. As a number 
of women historians have pointed out, 
civic and patriotic motherhood was 
seen as women's form of citizenship, 
and the education of mothers was con- 
structed in all Europe as a national ob- 
ligation after the 18th century French 
model. 

Although some Bulgarian male 
intellectuals declared their belief that 
women and men had the same intel- 
lectual faculties, only few discussed 
women's education in terms of "natural 
rights" of "human beings". One of them 

was Lyuben Karavelov 
- a national revolution- 
ary and man of letters, 
who insisted that women 
and men should receive 
the same education and 
that both women and 
men should attain "full 
physical, moral, and 
intellectual accomplish- 
ments". Special training 
for girls, as Karavelov 
observed "does not de- 
velop but incapacitates 
the mind of women and 



BaAO a& cavjkm 3a Mo6wAW[3MpaHe 
Ha ^KeHMTe 3a HauwoHaAHiiTe 3a- 
Aanw m 3a noAroTOBKaTa Ha Man- 

KMTe KaTO BTj3nMTaTeAKM Ha &b- 

AeujMTe rpa>KAaHM. KaKTo OT6e- 
AH3BaT peAwua M3CAeAOBaTeAKM 

Ha OTHOUieHMHTa mokay noAOBe- 

Te, naTpMOTMHHOTO MaMHMHCTBO 

e 6mao cxBamaHO KaTO cneun- 
4>MHHa >KeHCKa 4>opMa Ha rpa>K- 
AaHCTBO, a o6pa30BaHweTO Ha 
MaMKMTe e KOHCTpywpaHO b uflAa 
EBpona KaTO HaunoHaAHO 3aA"bA- 
^ceHne no noAo6ne Ha 4>peHCKMH 
npocBemeHCKM moaca. M^Mi 

Bi>npeKM ne hhkom npeACTaBMTeAM 
Ha BT>3po>KAeHCKaTa wHTeAMreHUMH 
AeKAapwpaT csoHTa Bflpa b eAHaKBMH 
MHTeAeKTyaAeH KanauwTeT Ha A^aTa 
noAa, caMO MaAKa nacT roBop^T 3a 
o6pa30BaHMeTo Ha aceHWTe KaTO 3a 
„ecTecTBeHM npaBa" Ha boiko hobciuko 
ci>mecTBO. Aio6eH KapaBeAOB Hanpw- 
Mep HacTOKBa, ne ^KeHMTe m Mi>)KeTe 
Tpn6Ba Aa noAynaBaT caho n cbino 06- 
pasosaHMe, ne m ABaTa noAa Tpa6Ba a& 

nOCTMrHaT m>AHO ({)M3llHeCKO, MOpaAHO 
M MHTeAeKTyaAHO C'bB'bpLLieHCTBO, ne 

cnei^naAHOTo A^BMHecKO o6pa30BaHMe 
He pa3BMBa, a ocaKaTHBa MMCAeHeTO m 
y6MBa He3aBMCMMOCTTa Ha >KeHMxe. 

EA^HCTBeHaTa MHTeAeKTyaAHa npo- 
4>ecMH, AOCT^nHa 3a ^ceHMTe npe3 Bt>3- 
pa>KAaHeTO, e Ta3M Ha yHMTeAKaTa. A° 
1878 r. MMa AcIhhm 3a okoao 400 ynMTeA- 

KM (6"bArapKM M Hy^A^HKM). 06pa30Ba- 
HMeTO M MHTeAeKTyaAHMTe 3aHMMaHMH 

Ha ^ceHwxe CTaBaT ocHOBa 3a pa3BMTwe- 
to Ha onpeAeAeHO MHAMBMAyaAMCTMHHO 

CaMOCb3HaHMe B KOHTpaCT c TpaAM- 

i^woHHMTe naTpnapxaAHM uchhoctii 

m A°6poAeTeAM Ha 3ao6wKaAnmaTa 
rn cpeAa. Hhkom ot Te3M >KeHM, KaTO 



HedeAM TlemKOBa 

(1826-1894) - edna 
om ntpBume 6t>a~ 
zapcKU ynumeAKU 
npe3 B-bspawba- 
Hemo 

Nedelya Petkova 

(1826-1894) - one 
of the first Bulgar- 
ian women-teachers 
during the 19th 
c. Revival period 




kills their independence" Yet, he was 
an exception. During the 19th century 
most Bulgarian educators - similarly 
to their Western colleagues, believed 
in what Thomas Laqueur has called 
the "two-sex model" i.e. women and 
men are essentially distinct creatures 
whose different bodies imply different 
behavior, but also different abilities 
and intellectual potential. Accordingly, 
they insisted on different education 
and socialization of men and women 
that presumably would correspond 
more properly to their "natural" dispo- 
sitions. Such opinions were reflected 
to a certain extent in the Bulgarian 
schools' curricula. 

The only intellectual profession 
open to women under the Ottoman 
rule was that of teacher. There were 
about 400 women teachers prior to 
the liberation in 1878. This became 
the starting point for the develop- 
ment of a certain sense of self-aware- 
ness among women in contrast to the 
traditional patriarchal virtues and 
values of the surrounding milieu. 
Some women teachers shocked the 



7 



OraHKa HnKOAMua-Cnaco-EAeHMHa m 
HeAeAH FleTKOBa, moKMpaT o6iuecTBO- 

TO CbC CBOMTe „MT>?KKM MaHMepw" T.C 
CbC CB060AHMTe CM, HeKOH(J>OpMMCTKM 

MHeHMH m noBeAeHMe: m>pBaTa - c ot- 
Ka3a cm Aa ce noAHMHM Ha KOHBeHUMHTa 

Aa M3nOA3Ba eAMHCTBeHO (})aMMAHOTO 

MMe Ha cbnpyra cm caca 6pa*ca, BTopaTa 
- nopaAM HaBMKa cm a& „nMe tiotioh", 
T.e. a^ nyiuM HaprMAe. Ho AopM HaM- 
Ao6pe o6pa30BaHMTe >kchm HaBpeMexo 
ce nyBCTBaT MHTerpaAHa nacT ot HauM- 
OHaAHaTa o6uthoct m npMcnoco6flBaT 

CBOMTe MHTeAeKTyaAHM M COUMaAHM 

acnnpauMM kt>m AOMMHMpaujMTe HauM- 
OHaAHM 3aAaMM w 6op6w Ha enoxaTa. 



public with their "men's manners" 
i.e. free non-conformist opinions 
and behavior. Thus, Stanka Nikolitsa- 
Spasso-Elenina refused to obey the 
convention of naming women after 
their fathers and, upon marriage - af- 
ter their husbands. Another woman 
- Nedelia Petkova, was considered 
"immoral" because of her habit to 
"drink tobacco", i.e. using Turkish 
narg(h)ile(h). But even the best edu- 
cated women at the time felt as an in- 
tegral part of the national community 
and tuned their intellectual and social 
aspirations to the dominant national 
struggles. 



)KEHCKMTE APV^ECTBA 
nPEAM OCBOBO>KAEHMETO 




WOMEN'S ASSOCIATIONS 
BEFORE THE LIBERATION 






KaKTo e M3BecTHo, n-bpBMTe 6tjA- 

rapCKM >KeHCKM 6AarOTBOpMTeAHM M 

o6pa30BaTeAHM opraHM3aiiMM ca ci>3- 
AaAeHM npe3 50-Te toamhm Ha XIX b. 
Te MMaT AGMOKpaTMHHa CTpyKTypa 
w cnopeA ycTaBMTe cm npnejviaT 3a 

HAeHKM BCMHKM >KeHM He3aBMCMMO OT 

peAMrMH, eTHOc, o6pa30BaHMe m coum- 
aAHa npMHaAAe>KHOCT. /\° 1878 r. cb- 
mecTByBaT 61 ^ceHCKM APy>KecTBa, ot 
komto 46 ca b 6i>ArapcKMTe 3eMM, 7 ca 
B 6i>ArapcKMTe eMMrpaHTCKM koaohmm 
b ny>K6MHa, nAioc 8 A eBMX * ec KM Apy- 
)KecTBa. ^KeHCKMTe APY> KeCTB a npe3 
BT?3pa^cAaHeTO ca haoa Ha BT>Tpem- 

HMTe TpaHC(J)OpMai;MM B 6l>ArapCKOTO 
o6meCTBO, HO Hy>KAMTe BT>3AeMCTBMfl 

3a npoMHHa b TpaAMiiHOHHMTe, naTpn- 



The first Bulgarian women's phil- 
anthropic and educational organiza- 
tions were set up in the 1850s. They 
had democratic structures and, ac- 
cording to their statutes, admitted as 
members all women, regardless of re- 
ligion, ethnicity, education, and social 
background. All in all, there existed 
61 women's organizations until the 
liberation in 1878, of which 46 were 
within the limits of Bulgarian territory, 
seven in the Bulgarian emigre colonies 
abroad, plus eight girls' associations. 
During that period women's organiza- 
tions were urban phenomena. Their 
leaders were educated women who be- 
longed to the middle and upper bour- 
geoisie, as well as the intelligentsia. 



8 



X^sToZZZ 




IsmI- 


; ^Jj__J^____g___J_||_||__^j_j^j__™-^^ 



apxaAHM Bi>3rAeAM no noBOA mhctoto 

M pOAHTa Ha >KeHMTe ctmo MMaT Ba>K- 

ho 3HaneHMe (KaTo HanpuMep Te3M Ha 
aMepMKaHCKMTe npoTecTaHTCKH mm- 

CMM). He3aBMCMMO OT HHKOM pa3AMKM 
OCHOBHaTa UeA Ha BT>3pO>KAeHCKMTe 

>KeHCKM APy^ecTBa e noAnoMaraHe 
Ha A^BMHecKOTO o6pa30BaHMe m noA- 
Kpena Ha ny6AMKai^HM Bi>pxy ^cchckm 
npo6AeMM, KaKTO m 6AaroTBopnTeAHM 

M 4)MAaHTpOnilHHIl aKUMM. >KeHCKHTe 
OpraHM3ai^MM OTBapflT )KeHCKM HVL- 

TaAHM m 6M6AMOTeKM, opraHM3MpaT 

ny6AMHHM AeKUMM M M3npamaT CTaTMM 

AO nepMOAMHHMTe MSAaHMH; tcxhm 
HAeHKw ynacTBaT b aMaTbopcKMTe Te- 

aTpaAHM riOCTaHOBKM. 

AKTMBMCTKMTe Ha >KeHCKOTO A BM " 

>KeHne ot oHOBa BpeMe MMaT m cbo- 
MTe Me^cAy H ^poAHM KOHTaKTM. Caca 
AnpMACKOTO Bi>CTaHMe npe3 1876 r. 
MHoro )KeHCKM opraHM3ai4MM nwuiaT 
AO pycKM A^nAOMaTM b LfapwrpaA, 
ByKypem m IIaobamb, ao ynMAwma b 
Pycira, PyM"bHMH m Ilpara, a° ny>KAM 
MMCMOHepM, ao ^ceHCKM opraHJ43auwM 

M M3BeCTHM AMHHOCTM B Hy>K6MHa C 

HaAe^KA^ Aa npMBAeKaT BHMMaHneTO 



Women's organizations were the result 
of trie internal changes and develop- 
ments of Bulgarian society, but foreign 
influences in changing the traditional, 
patriarchal views about women's po- 
sition and duties in society played a 
role, too. Despite some differences, the 
main goal of the Bulgarian women's or- 
ganizations from the National Revival 
period was to support girls' education 
and publications on women's issues, as 
well as to be involved in charity and 
philanthropic activities. Women's or- 
ganizations opened women's reading 
clubs and libraries, organized public 
lectures, and contributed articles to 
periodicals. Some of their members 
participated in amateur theaters. 

During that time Bulgarian wom- 
en's organizations had some inter- 
national contacts. After the April 
Uprising against the Ottoman rule in 
1876, many women's organizations 
wrote to Russian diplomats in Con- 
stantinople, Bucharest, and Plovdiv, 
as well as schools in Russia, Romania, 
and Prague, to foreign missionaries, to 
women's organizations, and to famous 



Ha cBeTOBHaTa o6ujecTBeHocT ktjm 
TparwHHMTe ct>6mtmh b 6"bArapcKMTe 
3eMM, Me^cAy aApecaTMTe ca Aeu^vi 
CTpaHrcJ)opA m 06uiecTBOTo Ha eA^H- 

6yprCKMTe AaMM, CAaBflHO(j)I4ACKI4flT 

KOMMTeT b MocKBa M HeroBaTa >KeHCKa 

CeKlIMfl, m Ap. 



people abroad in the hope of attracting 
their attention to the tragic events in 
Bulgaria. Among the addressees were 
Lady Stranghford and the society of 
The Edinburgh Ladies, as well as the 
Russian Slavophil Committee in Mos- 
cow and its Ladies' Branch. 



)KEHCKWTE OPrAHM3AlTMIfl 
CAEA OCBOEO>KA EHMETO (1878-1944) 




v 



WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS 
AFTER THE LIBERATION (1878-1944) 



B KOHTeKCTa Ha HOBaTa Hai^woHaAHa 
Ai>p>KaBa CAeA 1878 r. o6pa30BaHweTO 
Ha >KeHMTe npoA^A^caBa Aa 6i>Ae Ba^ceH 
Bi>npoc, oco6eHO cpeAHOTo m bmcuicto 
o6pa30BaHMe. M CAeA OcBo6o>KAeHi4- 
eTO o6ane oTKpMBaMe TpaAMLtMOHHaTa 

AMHMH Ha >KeHCKa 6AarOTBOpMTeAHOCT. 

AewHOCTTa Ha aKTMBMCTKMTe e Hacone- 
Ha no eAMH TBT>pAe HeAw^epemjiipaH 
HanwH kt>m o6iijoto noAo6pnBaHe Ha 
CMTyaiiMHTa Ha aceHWTe. C TeHeHMe Ha 
BpeMeTO npeA cbinecTBVBaiijOTo >KeH- 
cko a bm ^^ hm 6 ce nppi6aBHT no-cneijM- 

4>MHHM 3aAaHM: AOCTT>n AO pa3AMHHM 

npo4>ecnM, paBeHCTBO npeA 3aKOHMTe, 
M36MpaTeAHO npaBO. 

HaM-paHHMTe HaCTOHTeAHH ^CeHCKM 

MCKaHMH ca HaconeHM ktdM A°6i4BaHe 
Ha o6pa30BaTeAHO paBHonpaBMe. A e ^' 

CTBaMKM B yHMCOH C „ABVnOAOBI4fl MO- 

AeA", HOBMHT 6i>ArapcKM eAMT (noAo6HO 
Ha HeroBMTe ctjOtbctctbhh APyraA^) 
npoAi»A)KaBa Aa Haca>KAa MHeHMeTo, ne 
Mi»>KeTe ca „mctmhckm noAMTMHecKw" 
a >KeHMTe - „no npwpoAa" AOMauiHO 
opweHTMpaHM. 3aTOBa BAacTMMaiirMTe 
boa^t noAMTMKa Ha 3ana3BaHe Ha pa3- 



The new Bulgarian state was estab- 
lished in 1878 as constitutional mon- 
archy run by a foreign dynasty. Within 
the new nation- state context, women's 
education continued to present an im- 
portant issue, especially secondary and 
higher education. The traditional line 
of doing charitable and philanthropic 
work continued. Women's activism was 
still geared in a rather undifferentiated 
way toward a general improvement of 
women's situation. In the course of 
time new specific objectives were add- 
ed such as women's access to different 
professions, equal rights, and the vote. 

Access to education constituted 
the earliest women's demand. The 
new Bulgarian elite (as their power- 
ful counterparts elsewhere), acting in 
tune with the "two-sex model", shaped 
public opinions of men as "properly 
political" and women as "naturally do- 
mestic". They supported different poli- 
cies in favour of separate education of 
girls and boys. Once introduced, the 
differences in high-school curricula 
served as a convenient pretext to 



10 



AeAeHOTO w pa3AM4HO no ci>A'bp>KaHMe 
m cTpyKTypa o6pa30BaHwe 3a mommhc- 
TaTa m MOMneTaTa. A CAeA KaTO BeAHT>>K 
Bene ca 6mam Bi>BeAeHM, pa3AMHMHTa b 
nporpaMMTe Ha A^BMnecKMTe m mt>>k- 
kmtc rnMHa3MM CAy>KaT KaTO yAo6eH 
npeTeKCT 3a HeAonycKaHe Ha ^ceHMTe ao 
BMcineTo yHMAMiije b Co(J)mh. HecAynaM- 

HO eAHO OT OCHOBHMTe MCKaHMH Ha >KeH- 

CKMTe Apy>KecTBa npe3 90-Te toamhm Ha 
XIX b. e 3a M3paBHHBaHe Ha yne6HMTe 
nporpaMM Ha A^BMMecKMTe m Mi>>KKMTe 
cpeAHM yHMAMma. B pe3yATaT Ha npe- 
AM3BMKaHMH o6ujecTBeH Ae6aT 3a Heo6- 
xoAMMOCTTa ot o6pa30BaHwe Ha >KeHM- 
Te, npe3 1897 r. e npneT 3aKOH, komto 
M3paBHHBa cpeAHOTO o6pa30BaHwe Ha 
MOMMneTaTa w MOMHeTaTa no 6pow Ha 
KAacoseTe (4>MKCMpaMKM ro Ha ceAeM 
KAaca CAeA HeTHpuroAwiuHO HanaAHO 
o6pa30BaHwe). B^npeKM ne ^ceHMTe ca 
AonycHaTM ao coc^mmckoto Bncuie yHM- 
AMii^e npe3 1901 r., npeApa3ci>A'bUMTe 
no noBOA Ha TexHMTe „MHTeAeKTyaAHM 

BT>3MO^CHOCTn" M BMeHeHMTe MM „AAT>>K- 

hoctm" npoA'bA^aBaT a& AOMMHMpaT b 
o6mecTBOTO m ca noAAT>P>KaHn Aopw ot 
M3BecTHM, eBponeMCKM opneHTHpaHM 
MHTeAeKTyaAi^w KaTO A-p Kp. Kpi>CTeB, 

CTOHH MMXaMAOBCKM M (wMnAMl^MTHo) 

Aopw coiinaAMCTa MBaH XaA^KWMCKM. 
>Kchckoto BMcme o6pa30BaHne Aopn 
e 3a6paHeHO 3a KpaTKo bt>b BpeMeTo 
Ha T.Hap. yHMBepcwTeTCKa Kpn3a npe3 
1907 r. 

B HanaAOTo Ha XX b. ce noHBHBaT 

HHKOAKO OCHOBHM >KeHCKM OpraHM3a- 

umm, p-bKOBOAeHM ot HOBa reHepauwfl 

aKTMBMCTKM. BtAzapcKuxm MCeHCKU 

C7>u>3 (BjKC) HaneAO b nwcaTeAKaTa 
AHHa KapwMa (1871-1949) e ci>3AaAeH 
npe3 1901 r. ct>c cneuw(|>MHHaTa 3aAana 
Aa pa6oTM 3a „MHTeAeKTyaAHOTO n Ay- 



ban girls from attending university. 
(As many scholars have argued - the 
French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in- 
cluded, school is among the major in- 
stitutions - together with the Church 
and the State, that are responsible for 
the preservation of old stereotypes and 
male domination.) Consequently, the 
unification of high school curricula for 
girls and boys became an important 
demand of the women's societies that 
were formed during the 1890s. Due 
to women's efforts, a heated debate 
on women's education was provoked. 
Its outcome was a law in 1897, which 
equalized high school education for 
girls and boys (fixing it at seven grades 
above the primary four-year level). 
Although Bulgarian women were ad- 
mitted to Sofia University in 1901, 
prejudices about women's "intellectual 
capacities" and preordained "roles" 
prevailed in society, and were held even 
by well-known, Europe-oriented intel- 
lectuals such as Dr. Krastiu Krustev, 
Stoyan Mihailovski, and (implicitly) 
even by the socialist Ivan Hadzhiiski. 
The new policy on women's higher 
education was even reversed for a time 
by a government decision during the 
so-called "university crisis" in 1907, 
but this proved a short-lived incident. 
At the beginning of the 20th century 
there appeared several major women's 
organizations, which were led by a new 
generation of women activists. The Bul- 
garian Women's Union (BWU) was es- 
tablished in 1901 with the specific goal of 
uplifting Bulgarian women "intellectual- 
ly and spiritually". It was born in reaction 
to the limitations imposed on women's 
university education in the late 1890s, 
and presented an umbrella organization 



11 




Anna KapuMa (1871-1949)- 
ynumeAKa, nucameAtca, npeso- 
daHKa, MypuaAucmKa; ocnoBa- 
meAKa u AudepKa (1901-1906) 

HU EtAZapCKUR WieHCKU Cbt03 

(1901-1944) u ua cbK)3 „PaBHO- 
npaBue" (1908-1921) 

Anna Karima (1871-1949)- 
teacher, writer, translator, journal- 
ist and editor; co-founder of the 
Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz (Bulgar- 
ian Women's Union, 1901-1944) 
and its first president (1901-1906); 
founder of the union Ravnopravie 
(Equal Rights, 1908-1921) 



xobho M3AwraHe" Ha „6T>ArapKaTa". Tom 
ce paa<Aa KaTo peaKUMfl cpeiiry orpa- 
HMHeHMHTa, HaAo^ceHM Ha >KeHMTe no 
OTHOineHwe Ha o6pa30BaHneTO b icpan 
Ha 90-Te roAHHM Ha XIX b., m npeA- 
CTaBAABa o6eAMHeHMe ot 27 mccthm 
^ceHCKM opraHM3ai4MM. Obiosiyr npo- 
Be^cAa peAOBHO HaunoHaAHM KOHrpecw 
m M3AaBa BecTHMK „)KeHCKu zacic", kom- 
to nponaraHAwpa HeroBMTe MAen, E>KC 
e ni>pBaTa o6ina ^ceHCKa opraHM3aiimi b 
E^Arapufl. B HanaAOTO couMaAMCTMHec- 
KMTe MAen 3a eMaHm/rnauwfl Ha ^ceHMTe 
npeo6AaAaBaT cpeA HeroBMTe hachkh. 
C TeneHwe Ha BpeMeTo ce noHBHBaT 
pa3AMHMH no oTHOiueHwe Ha ueAMTe n 
CTpaTeruMTe Ha opraHM3aiH4HTa m ce 
o<j)opMHT ABe rpynn, kohto ce npoTM- 
BonocTaBHT eAHa Ha APY ra: no-TpaAM- 
i^MOHaAMCTKO, „6yp>jcoa3Ho", TeneHwe 
m coi^naAMCTMHecKO. Ilpe3 1903 r., 
CAeABaMKM pa3AeAeHneTO Me>KAy TecHM 

M UIMpOKM COl^MaAHCTM b paMKMTe Ha 

B"bArapcKaTa pa6oTHMnecKa couwaAAe- 
MOKpaTMnecKa napTwa, counaAMCTKHTe 
HanycKaT E>KC HeAOBOAHM ot rAacy- 
BaHaTa pe30AK)UMH 3a HaAKAacoBMH 
xapaKTep Ha opraHM3auMflTa. 



that united 27 local 
women's associations 
- the writer Anna 
Karima (1871-1949) 
being in charge. The 
Union held regular 
national congresses 
and published a pe- 
riodical - Zhenski 
glas (Women's Voice) 
to propagate its 
ideas. It became the 
first broad women's 
organization in Bul- 
garia. Over the years 
there emerged some differences about 
the goals and strategies of the organi- 
zation. As a whole, two major opinions 
and groups opposed each other: the 
more traditional "bourgeois" trend and 
the socialists. Despite their differences, 
they coexisted until 1903, but then (fol- 
lowing the split within the Bulgarian So- 
cialist Party into "narrow" and "broad" 
socialists) the women socialists left the 
Union, angry at the fact that a resolution 
on its "above-class" character had been 
passed. The Union continued the nation- 
al revivalist tradition of philanthropic 
women's organizations, but slowly came 
under the influence of the contemporary 
women's movements in the West, and 
oriented the Bulgarian women's move- 
ment towards a "new path": the struggle 
for equal civic and political rights. It was 
as late as 1907 that "equality" was put 
on the agenda of the BWU. The (8th) 
Union Congress in 1909 stressed once 
again its "above-class", "above-party" 
principles, as well as its "truly feminist" 
character. The 15th Congress in 1921 
transformed the Unions goals, which 
aimed at achieving full civil and political 



12 



PaBeHCTBOTo e nocTaBeHO KaTo 
rAaBHa ueA b nporpaMaTa Ha B>KC 
eABa npe3 1907 r. m He 6e3 bamhhmc Ha 
>KeHCKOTO ABM^eHwe Ha 3anaA CbJ03VT 
6aBHO npeopweHTMpa 6'bArapcKMTe 
>KeHM kt>m npwAo6MBaHeTO Ha paBHM 
rpa>KAaHCKM m noAMTMHecKM npasa 
(c Te3M Ha Mi>>KeTe). rieTHaAeceTMHT 
KOHrpec Ha B>KC npe3 1921 r. TpaHC- 
c^opMMpa ueATa My b nocTMraHe Ha 
m>AHM rpa>KAaHCKM m noAMTMHecKM 
npaBa 3a yKemne. Tlpe3 1927 r. B>KC 
o6eAHHHBa 60 MecTHH >*ceHCKW Apy- 
>KecTBa c noBene ot 7000 hachkm c 
pa3AMHHa noAMTMnecKa opweHTai^wa 

M COmiOAOrMHeCKM npO(J)MA, KaTO 
MH03MHCTBOTO OT THX Ca AOMaKMHM, 
yHMTeAKM M HMHOBHMHKM. /\aHHMTe 3a 

o6pa30BaHweTO Ha HAeHVBauiMTe B c t>~ 

KaAendap 3a 1922 z., noc&emen ua m6opHurne 
npasa ua menume 

1922 Calendar, dedicated to women's suffrage 
rights 




rights for women. In 1927, BWU united 
60 local women's associations with more 
than 7,000 members of various political 
orientations and sociological profile; 
most of them were housewives, teach- 
ers, and state employees. Data about 
the members' education levels show that 
the greatest number of them had a high 
school (secondary) education and only 
around 8 % had graduated from univer- 
sity. In the early 1940s, when Bulgarians 
annexed Macedonia and had the terri- 
tory of Dobrudza returned, the Bulgar- 
ian Women's Union already included 170 
women's societies with more than 14,000 
members in "United Bulgaria". Though 
the Union worked mostly on problems 
of middle-class Bulgarian women, it 
paid some attention to the hardships 
of women from the lower social strata 
(peasants, workers, and maids). 

In 1909, another "mainstream" or- 
ganization was founded, namely the 
union Ravnopravie (Equal Rights), 
also called Suiuz na naprednichavite 
zheni (Union of Progressive Women) 
- as a result of the differences, divi- 
sions, and tensions within the Bulgar- 
ian women's movement. It had also 
been inspired by some international 
developments, namely by the women 
suffrage campaigns in Western Euro- 
pean countries, which demanded that 
women should be given the suffrage 
on the same terms as men. In 1907, 
the Second International endorsed the 
demand for unrestricted suffrage for 
adult women and men alike. Encour- 
aged by this, Anna Karima (the first 
chairwoman of the Bulgarian Women's 
Union) - together with a small group 
of former members of the Union, set 
up this new organization, specifically 



13 



K)3a >KeHM conaT, Me noBeneTO ca ct>c 
cpeAHO o6pa30BaHwe m caMO okoao 
8% - c BMciue. B HanaAOTO Ha 40-Te 
roA^HM Ha XX b., KoraTO E^ArapMH cm 
B'bSBp'bma MaKeAOHMH m A°6pyA>Ka, 
B>KC oGeAMHABa Bene 170 ^cencKM 
Apy^ecTBa c noBene ot 14 000 hachkm 
ot „06eAHHeHa BijArapMH". BtnpeKM 
ne ct>k)3t>t pa6oTM HaM-Bene BT^pxy 
npo6AeMMTe Ha >KeHMTe ot cpeAHaTa 

KAaca, TOM OTAeAH M3BeCTHO BHMMa- 

HMe m Ha TpyAHOCTMTe Ha >KeHMTe ot 

HMCIIIMTe COI^MaAHM CAOeBe (ceAHHKM, 
pa6oTHMHKM, CAyrMHM). 

BAaroAapeHMe ynacTMeTo Ha 6t>a- 
rapcKMTe npeACTaBMTeAKM >KeHM 
Bo^KMAOBa-llaTeBa m Mp, CoKeposa b 
KOHrpecMTe Ha Membyuapodnufi clau- 
uhc Ha wtenume (International Alliance 
of Women, IAW, ci>3AaAeH npe3 1904 r. 
b BepAMH, no-Ki>CHO npeMMeHyBaH b 
International Woman Suffrage Allia- 
nce, IWSA u International Alliance of 
Women for Suffrage and Equal Citize- 
nship, IAWSEC) m Ha MeMdynapodHUM 
MeucKU casern {International Council of 
Women, ICW 1 , cb3AaAeH npe3 1888 r. 

B'bB BaiUHrTOH) CbOTBeTHO B AMCTep- 

AaM m )KeHeBa, npe3 1908 r. 6i>Arap- 

CKOTO >KeHCKO A^M>KeHMe, m>pBO OT 

6aAKaHCKMTe CTpaHM, M3AM3a Ha MOK- 

AyHapoAHaTa ciieHa 2 . Ocmmht KOHrpec 
Ha B>KC npe3 1909 r. ome bcahtok noA- 
nepTaBa HeroBMTe „HaAKAacoBM", „HaA- 

napTMMHM" npMHl^MnM, CblHO KaKTO M 

HCHMfl My <()eMMHMCTKM xapaicrep. Ilpe3 
1919 r. 6'bArapcKOTo >KeHCKO ABM^ceHMe 



1 Fi>pi4MH ce npwcbeAMHKBa ki>m ICW npe3 
1908 r., Gbp6wfl - npe3 1911 r., PyMtHHH 

- npe3 1921 r. 

2 Ct>p6mh e HAeHKa Ha IAW/IWSA/IAWSEC 
ot 1911 r., PbpijMfl - ot 1920 r., PyMT>Hwa 

- 1921 r., TypijMH - ot 1926 r. 



devoted to the pursuit of civil and 
political rights for women. This move 
caused some tensions, though Karima 
assured the Women's Union that the 
new group would support its efforts by 
addressing women's rights and engag- 
ing in the serious political questions of 
the day. It was members of the new Un- 
ion Ravnopravie who sent petitions to 
the Bulgarian Parliament in 1909, de- 
manding changes in the electoral law 
that would enable women to vote. By 
that time, the question of equal rights 
for women and men had become one 
of the main concerns of the Bulgarian 
Women's Union as well. 

The two organizations - the Union 
Ravnopravie (more leftist) and the 
Bulgarian Women's Union, became 
the real engine of the suffragist move- 
ment in the country. In fact, Bulgarian 
women were not specifically excluded 
from suffrage by the Bulgarian consti- 
tutional and electoral law, but patriar- 
chal customs and traditions regarded 
only men as fit to be "citizens". (All men, 
minority groups included, were granted 
voting rights.) Fighting tradition proved 
in effect more difficult than amending 
laws. Woman's suffrage would remain 
an unresolved demand until 1937, 
when the vote was first granted for 
local elections "to mothers in a legal 
marriage," and finally - for parliamen- 
tary elections - to "married, divorced, 
and widowed" women, though not to 
single adult women. Keeping in mind 
the traditional high and early marriage 
pattern in the country, the proportion 
of women who did not gain the vote 
was actually very low. But the point is 
that male legislators had made women's 
political rights conditional on their re- 



14 



EKamepuHa KapaeeAOsa (1860-1947) 

- ynumeAKa, npeBodaHKa, MypnaAuemKa 
u o6u$ecmBeHUHKa; 3aM.~npedcedameA- 
ku na BftAeapcKUH mencKu cbK>3, B/KC 
(1915-1925), ptKOBodumeAKa na 6ka- 
zapcKama ceKU,un na MembyHapodnama 
ycencKa Auza 3a MUp u csoSoda (1925) 

Ekaterina Karavelova (1860-1947) 

- teacher, translator, publicist and public 
figure; Vice-Chairwoman of the Bulgar- 
ski Zhenski Sujuz (Bulgarian Women's 
Union, 1915-1925); Chairwoman (from 
1925) of the Bulgarian branch of the 
Women's International League for Peace 
and Freedom (WILPF) 




ce BKAK>HBa m b MeyKdynapobuama men- 
cku Auza 3a Mup u cso6oda (Women's 
International League for Peace and Fr- 
eedom, WILPF 3 , cb3AaACHa b Xara npe3 
1915 r. KaTO International Women's Le- 
ague for Peace). BtAeapcKama ceKU>ufi 
na Auzama e p^KOBOAeHa ot EKaTe- 
pMHa KapaBeAOBa (1860-1947), Amamh 
LLlMinMaHOBa (1866-1937) m BacMAKa 
KepTeBa (1894-1967). Te ynacTBaT b 
KOHrpecMTe Ha WILPF (bt>b BauiMHr- 
toh, /\t>6amh, Ilpara m AP-)> noceiua- 
BaT opraHM3wpaHMTe ot AwraTa acthm 
iiikoam, nocpemaT npeACTaBMTeAKM Ha 
cBeTOBHaTa opraHMsauMH b Bi>ArapMH 

(Me^cAy komto KaMMM Apy e » HAeHKa Ha 
4>peHCKaTa ceKUMfl). Ot 25 aBrycT ao 10 
cenTeMBpn 1930 r. 6i>ArapcKaTa ceKiiMH 
CTaBa AOMaKMH Ha e>KeroAHOTo ahtho 
vHMAMiue Ha WILPF. ripe3 1933 r., no 
BpeMe Ha TpeTOTo cm o6iijo cb6paHwe, 

CeKUMflTa MHMUMMpa KOMMTeT 3a 3auiM- 

Ta Ha eBpewTe b TepiviaHMH. (Pa3AMHHH 
nepMOAMHHM H3AaHMH b Bi.ArapMH ny6- 

AMKyBaT CTaTMM Cpemy T03M KOMMTeT c 

arpyMeHTa, ne He e pa6oTa Ha 6i>ArapM- 

3 Pbpijmi CTaBa HAemca Ha WILPF npe3 
1921 r., a lOrocAaBMA - npe3 1934 r. 



lation to men. Bulgarian women were 
treated not as separate human beings, 
as individuals (in terms of liberal ideol- 
ogy) but as universal dependents affili- 
ated to the (men) citizens of the nation 
state, i.e. they were citizens only by vir- 
tue of their ties to their husbands (cur- 
rent, former, or already dead!). Family 
life with a man was like a test, a judg- 
ment, and a proof as to whether a wom- 
an could also be a voter. In addition, the 
new electoral law gave women only the 
right to vote but not to be elected (i.e. 
only active voting rights). 

The situation of the Bulgarian wom- 
en's suffrage movement resembled that 
of other "late-comers" such as France 
and Switzerland, where universal male 
suffrage had been proclaimed at an 
earlier date - unlike the situation in 
Germany and Britain, where class was 
a barrier to suffrage for men as well 
Women in the latter countries got the 
vote soon after universal male suffrage 
had been passed. 

In 1908, thanks to the participation 
of Bulgarian representatives (Zheni 
Bozhilova-Pateva and Irina Sokerova) in 



15 



J/ CTfiiBTb 









^py^KECTBOTO HA E^ArAPKHTfc CIj 
BHCIHE 0BPA30BAHHE 



yTftTs.PAC»l> OT*b MiltlHCTepCTftOTO HA &JATi>**Umi*Tfc pAOOTH K 
HApGAttttTO SAP&Be C1j RMCMO ^ 7131 OT"b 26* XL 1924 rOADHA- 



CO 



rtetttTHtuio C. M. Ct*RKom» 



"W 



~* 






YcmaB Ha ApywtecmBomo na 6tAzapKume c 
Bucvue o6pa30BaHue, 1924 z. 

Statutes of the Druzhestvoto na bulgarkite s 
visshe obrazovanie (Association of Bulgarian 
Women University Graduates), 1924 



Te Aa ce MecHT btjB BiyrpeiiimiTe pa6oTM 
Ha „BeAMKa IepMaHMfl") 

Ha 29 Mail 1924 r. b crpaA^Ta Ha 
n^pBa A^BMHecKa rMMHa3MH b Co<j>mh 
6i>ArapcKMTe yKenu c yHMBepoiTeT- 
cko o6pa30BaHne ci>3AaBaT co6cTBe- 
Ha opraHM3ai^MH - Apyycecmso Ha 
6'bAzapKume c suciue o6pa30&auue 
(/\EBO). B ycTaBa e 3anMcaHO, He to 
me c6AM>KaBa o6pa30BaHMTe xceHH m 
me tm HacbpnaBa eAHOBpeMeHHo kt>m 
HayHHa m o6mecTBeHa a^mhoct. Ha 28 
wam 1925 r. APy^ecTBOTO CTaBa HAeH 
Ha MewtdyHapoduama (fyedepav^ux Ha 
yHUBepcumemcKume Menu (Internati- 
onal Federation of University Women, 
IFUW, ci»3AaAeHa npe3 1919 r. m pa- 

60Tema B TflCHO CbTpyAHHHeCTBO c 
KOMMCMHTa 3a MHTeAeKTyaAHO TBOp- 



'Mum, vm*4 v m ^w rtfifxFte*? WjftJtt ^ ^ 

^<^te^4^ ft wsfey us? «4« £pM> top** 















jwatf .. y 



tMiiKw.fopiA -.JO- 









npomoKOA om 3acedaHue na /\pymecmBom.o 
na StAzapKume c Bucuie o6pa30Banue om 
oKmoMBpu 1924 z. 

Minutes of a meeting of the Druzhestvoto na 
bulgarkite s visshe obrazovanie (Association 
of Bulgarian Women University Graduates), 
October 1924 

the congresses of the International Al- 
liance of Women (IAW in Amsterdam) 
and the International Council of Women 
(ICW in Geneva), the Bulgarian wom- 
en's movement entered the international 
arena - being the first from South East- 
ern Europe. The Greek women's move- 
ment joined the ICW in 1908, Serbia 
- in 1911, and Romania - in 1921. As 
far as IAW affiliation is concerned (later 
renamed first International Woman 
Suffrage Alliance, IWSA, and after that 
International Alliance for Women's Suf- 
frage and Equal Citizenship, IAWSEC), 
Serbia became member of the Alliance 
in 1911, Greece in 1920, Romania in 
1921, and Turkey in 1926. 

In 1919 Bulgarian women joined the 
Women's International League for Peace 



16 



necTBo Ha OGmecTBOTo Ha HapoAHTe, 
League of Nations), TaKa B'bArapwn ce 
BnwcBa Ha A Ba AeceT m ntpBO mhcto 
cpeA HAeHyBamMTe bt>b (PeAepauwflTa, 
m>pBa ot 6aAKaHCKMTe CTpaHH m BTopa 

CpeA CAaBHHCKMH CBHT CAeA HeXOCAO- 

BaKMH. HAeHTa 3a 6i>ArapcKM kaoh Ha 
M®y>K npMHaAAOKM Ha EKaTepwHa 
3AaToycTOBa (1881-1952). OTHanaAo 
MAe^Ta 6nAa APy>KecTBOTO A a rpynw- 

pa npMHTeAKM, VHMTeAKM M VHeHWHKM, 

MaMKM vl Ai>mepM, 3a Aa pa6oTHT 3a Ha- 
vhhoto cm yc'bB'bpiueHCTBaHe m npo- 
(J)ecnoHaAHO M3AwraHe. A° CTa BpeMe 
MMHaBa o6ane, AOKaTo aKTMBMCTKMTe 

Ha APY^ e CTBOTO Ce BT>3nOA3BaT OT 

cneuwaAi43auMi4Te, komto npeAAara 
M®Y>K. EABa npe3 1935 r. aTOMHaTa 
<J)M3MHKa A"P EAwcaBeTa KapaMMxan- 
AOBa (1897-1968) neneAM CTMneHAMH 
3a pa6oTa b AaGopaTopnaTa Ha PfcA^p- 
4>opA b KewM6pMA>K. ToBa wbK okv- 
pa>KaBa Bepa 3AaTapeBa (1905-1977), 
m>pBaTa >KeHa aoktop no npaso Ha CY, 
Aa ynacTBa b KOHKypc 3a CTwneHAMfl no 

KpMMMHaAHa COUMOAOrWfl. Flo CbllJOTO 

BpeMe lopucTKaTa A°P a MycTaKOBa 
(1908-?) e npeMMpaHa ot (j^eAepaijMfl- 



and Freedom (founded in the Hague in 
1915 as International Women's League 
for Peace), Greece became member of 
the WILPF in 1921 and Yugoslavia in 
1934. The Bulgarian section was led 
by Ekaterina Karavelova (1860-1947), 
Lidya Shishmanova (1866-1937), and 
Vassilka Kerteva (1894-1967). They 
took part in the WILPF's congresses 
(held in Washington, Dublin, Prague, 
etc.), attended the summer schools, 
organized by the League, welcomed 
representatives of the IWLPF in So- 
fia (among them Camille Drouet, of 
the French Section of the WILPF and 
Secretary of the Central Office). From 
25 August to 10 September 1930 Ka- 
ravelova and Kerteva hosted a WILPF 
Summer School in Bulgaria. In 1933, 
during the third general meeting of 
the Bulgarian Section of WILPF (again 
with the participation of Camille Drou- 
et), a committee for the defense of Jews 
in Germany was set up, although some 
newspapers published articles against 
the Committee, and wrote that it was 
not Bulgarian business to interfere in 
the affairs of "Great Germany" 






EnamepuHa 3Aamoycmosa 

(1881-1952) - ocHOBameAKa (1924) 
u btAzozobumna npedcedameAKa 
(1926-1937) hu ApywecmBomo na 
6i>A2apKurne c nucme o6pa30Banue; 
CAymumeAKa b MuHucmepcmBomo 
ua o6pa30BaHuemo, ynumeAKa, npe- 
BodaHKa 

Ekaterina Zlatoustova (1881-1952) 
-founder (1924) and long-time Presi- 
dent (1926-1937) of the Druzhestvoto 
na bulgarkite s visshe obrazovanie 
(Association of Bulgarian Women Un- 
iversity Graduates); high-ranking civil 
servant, teacher, and translator 




17 




EAucasema KapaMuxauAosa 

(1897-1968) - amoMHa <fiu3UH- 
Ka, mpsama dou,enmKa (1939) 
b CocfiuucKUx y Husepcumem; 
UKmuBucmKa ua Apyittecmaomo 
ua 6tAeapKume c Bucuie o6pa- 
30Banue 

Elissaveta Karamihailova 

(1897-1968) - nuclear physicist; 
first woman Associate Professor at 
Sofia University (1939); member 
of the Druzhestvoto na bulgarkite 
s visshe obrazovanie (Association 
of Bulgarian Women University 
Graduates) 



Ta 3a MOHorpacJ)MHTa „OTpa^ceHwe Ha 
OH b E-bArapwfl". 

ITbpBaTa npeAceA^TeAKa Ha ABBO 
- EAeHa PaAeBa-FIeTpoBa (1874-1926), 
nnpneivia ynacTneTO Ha BMcuiMCTKMTe b 
AyXOBHMH >kmbot Ha CTpaHaTa Kaxo 
„A"bAr 3a Hac, paBeH no 3HaneHwe 

Ha BCMMKM APY rM HaiHM AA'b^HOCTM, 

ceMeMHM m o6mecTBeHw". B cbom- 

Te HeTMpM CeKI^MM - Ha lOpMCTKMTe, 

xyAo^KHMHKMTe, nwcaTeAKHTe w cTy- 
AeHTKMTe - ABBO o6eAMHHBa HeicoA- 
koctotmh >KeHM m noAnoMara He caMO 
yHMBepcwTeTCKMTe npenoAaBaTeAKM, 

HO M BCMHKM )KeHM, A^CKpHMKHMpaHM 

3apaAM noAa cm npw nocT^nBaHe Ha 
pa6oTa. Okoao 15% ot HAeHyBaujMTe 
b APy^^CTBOTO ca yHMAM b HyacGnHa 
(OpaHi^MH, TepMaHMH, IllBeMuapMH m 
ABCTpo-YHrapM^), ho roAHMaTa HacT 
ot HAeHKMTe ca noAyHMAM o6pa30Ba- 
Hwe b Bi>ArapMH: 47% b Co(J)mmckmh 
yHMBepcMTeT, 11% b XyAo^cecTBeHaTa 
aKaAeMMH, 2% b My3MKaAHaTa aicaAe- 
mm^. EAHa TpeTa ot Te3M >kchm ca c 
AOKTOpCKa CTeneH; noBeneTo ot tax 
3HaHT Hy>KA M e3Pmn m noAAi>p>KaT 

MHTCH3MBHM KOHTaKTM C aKTMBMCTKM 



Bulgarian women 
who had received 
university education 
formed an organi- 
zation of their own 
- Druzhestvo na 
bulgarkite s visshe 
obrazovanie {Asso- 
ciation of Bulgarian 
Women University 
Graduates, ABWUG, 
also known as Bul- 
garian Association of 
University Women, 
BAUW). The idea 
for the creation of this Association 
came from Ekaterina Zlatoustova 
(1881-1952). She had studied history 
in Russia, and subsequently worked as a 
secondary school teacher and as senior 
officer in the Ministry of Education. The 
BAUW was founded on 29 May 1924. 
The members were women from several 
generations, who associated feminism 
with various concepts - predomi- 
nantly liberal. Most of the founders 
were teachers, lecturers at Sofia Uni- 
versity, medical doctors, and lawyers, 
representing the entire intellectual and 
scientific elite in the capital. On 28 July 
1925 the BAUW became a member of 
the International Federation of Univer- 
sity Women (IFUW). The IFUW had 
been founded in New York in 1919 as 
part of the organizations associated 
with the League of Nations, and was 
a member of the Union of Intellectual 
Workers. In time, the IFUW became a 
mouthpiece for women university grad- 
uates, who wanted further qualification 
and professional career. The members 
were provided with travel grants and 
scholarships for scientific research. 



18 



M MHTeAeKTyaAKM B ny>K6MHa. Okoao 

60% ot HAeHyBauj[MTe b opraHM3aijM- 
>rra ca oMi»^eHM, ocTaHaAMTe ca bao- 
bmijm, pa3BeAeHM mam HMKora He ca 
ci>3AaBaAM ceMeMCTBa. ABBO pa6ora 
3a 6AaronpMHTHM vcaobmji 3a >KeHMTe 
bmciiimctkm b BTiArapMfl. HeroBM npeA- 
CTaBMTeAKM ynacTBaT b cpeiijMTe Ha 
International Federation of University 
Women, HanpwMep npe3 ioam 1926 r. 
>KMBKa /\parHeBa e ACAeraTKa Ha IV 
KOHrpec Ha <J>eAepauiMHTa b AMCTep- 
AaM. Ot APyra crpaHa, npeACTaBMTeA- 
km Ha ABCTpaAMMCKaTa acoijMaijMfl Ha 
^ceHMTe c yHMBepcMTeTCKO o6pa30Ba- 
HMe nocemaBaT B^ArapMH npe3 cbiijaTa 
1926 r„ a A»e toamhm no-icbCHO caMaTa 

CnucbK na HAeuKume na /\py#cecmBomo na 
6tAzapKume c Bucuie o6pa30Banue 

Register of the members of the Druzhestvoto na 
bulgarkite s visshe obrazovanie (Association of 
Bulgarian Women University Graduates) 






Pi 



TuttixMTi aa Apy»««TDorq na GaxrapatiTir a* aacce o^paioaaaaa. 




1* r-n Aii paw odd Aopa MeTaaa 
2. r~*aAKpft<5oao A»6a 
J^t r-tpi AxexcHBBB Ansa 
4* " AuxpaJteaaa Liap«a Bbukoba 

5. * AnocToaoaa 3a4mpo 

6. f-xa ApxayAOBB HlBftHa 

7. " ATiiHUCOsa ttapxx 
8* ■ A*o Kjseaa 

» AvKooa JlxXJa K-wi»©HOi* 
" AttXOBB Jl am mi 

■ A'4«oi»* Uapaoxaaa Poroaapona 
12 • Ahtkkobb JIkamji Ilonoaa 
13* r-na Mp* Axpadoea Jtaaaxa 
14* P-aa AaoctaxoBa JZxaxxita HaaNaaa 
r-uti Attrajoaa Axpaaaa 
A*aai*caaa UlMKa 
A-p* Aspaaoaa Sanaa 
A~pi Ahbotooobb Pmks Kpaauaia 
A-p* Arypa Hbhb 
A-p'W Atbrbcobb Ear«maa 

21 ♦ Baptiar* Pyxta P 

22 r-xa Ben ©a a il-pi Aopa Haqeaa 

23. Eoryo»poaa iURJca 

24. EoryBtapQBa SorxaHa 

25. r-«a apxut eXT% Ecposa Ma pax ZoHiutri 

26. r-na Eoaaaaa Tjuxk* 

27. Apxt iiocaxxoua Exaaa 
28* r«*a Bypnm Ansa 

29. P-aa Epeairoua KaaTepaa* 

30 . r-au* XrBpoaa tleuxa 

31* r-ua BopoyKOBC JJeaa /axGOatKapxx/ 

32. • JJeOq Eeposa 

33* r-aa Jliia. I>ojma\m*Ba l4apKX 

34. A-p* l*<jaa liapjHOBa Bxaroaaa 



9* 

10. 
11* 



15* 
H. 
17* 
18. 
19* 
80* 



a 
a 
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a 



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yx. ApaaroB-B £ A 

ya* AdOoitv Kap»B<M0B* 12 

* Bauaxxx* 16 

" Crap* Cvana 9 

Ea«o Kapo 11 

Boroaajr* 49 

PaKo»axjR 147 

Hapisaa ftoaua 96 

U-Cauyxxt 127 

rxaxaTaaa 28 

Typjco 17 

ApaaroB't $ 

napeacon-k 39 

Pyeu* ^ 

Ajirayv KibHvaBB ZB 



* MHxyKou-k 64 



* FaxoBoxa 148 

* Baxvea^ 1 

* Paxoacxa 13» 

* Typao 39 B 

* Ob* KXM:;e*** 6 
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y^.Ip.KouaicB* 3 

* Aoiiapyxt Z 

n FaXOBCKK 3G 

" Apaaro9% 11 
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38. r-aa BaaaaoBa AaoacaiiApa Odp«Baoaa 
36* " l^aKiiHoaa Paftaa Hj^jMatiim 

37. r-aa baciiaeua Paflna 

38. BaitaAKxaaa ^pax 



* JPBX0B6KB 05 

* Paxoooxu 85 

* CTttjiOMi iyBpaxxa 18 
■ Bya.^cpxxuaKX'B 4 



ILI.JJUJJIIJIIJJil 



m^mmm 



The Bulgarian Association of 
University Women (originally named 
Association of Bulgarian Women Uni- 
versity Graduates) was headed by an 
almost unchanged team for 28 years. 
The leadership sought balance among 
professions and generations. Several 
figures stood out in the BAUW lead- 
ership in the course of time. Over a 
few years four sections were formed 
within its framework: those of Women 
Lawyers, Women Artists, Women 
Writers, and Women Students. The 
BAUW followed the Anglo-American 
model of initially establishing a na- 
tional organisation, and subsequently 
its sections.The BAUW united several 
hundred women. About 15 % of them 
had been educated abroad - mainly 
in France, Germany, Switzerland, and 
Austria-Hungary. Most of the mem- 
bers had received their education in 
Bulgaria: at Sofia University, at the 
Arts Academy or at the Music Acad- 
emy. One third of the members had a 
doctoral degree; most of them knew 
foreign languages and sustained in- 
tensive contacts with women activists 
and intellectuals abroad. About 60 % 
of the members were married, the rest 
were single, widowed, or divorced. 
The organization worked to provide 
favorable conditions for professional 
women in Bulgaria. Its representatives 
participated in the meetings of the In- 
ternational Federation of Women with 
University Education. In July 1926, for 
example, Zhivka Dragneva partici- 
pated as a delegate in the Federation's 
Fourth Congress, held in Amsterdam. 
Members of the Australian Associa- 
tion of Women with University Educa- 
tion visited Bulgaria in 1926. Two years 

19 




)KusKa Apaetiesa 

(1885-1959) - aKmu- 
BucYHKa na Apywcecm- 
Bomo Ha Gi^AzapKume c 
suciue o6pa30BdHue 

Zhivka Dragneva 

(1885-1959) - activist 
of the Druzhestvoto na 
bulgarkite s visshe obra- 
zovanie (Association of 
Bulgarian Women Uni- 
versity Graduates) 



AMAepKa Ha CBeTOBHaTa 4>eAepaiiMfl 
- npocj). Tacamm, rocTyBa Ha 6i>Arap- 
CKaTa ceKijMfl Ha (j)eAepaijmiTa. Th ce 
cpema c npo4>ecopM ot Co(J)mmckmh 

yHMBepCMTeT M C 0(j)MIIMaAHM AMlja OT 

MuHMCTepcTBOTo Ha npocBemeHMeTO. 
HaM-m>AHoijeHHO APy>KecTBOTO 
>KMBee npe3 CBOMTe ceKijuw. FIpe3 
1928 r. no hcmckm npHMep e ocHOBaHa 
CeutifUH na xydooKHUHKume. >KeHMTe 

- XyAO>KHMHKH M apXMTeKTKM, KaKTO 

m c Apyrn npecTM^KHM npo4>ecMM, e 
Tpn6BaAo HenpeicbCHaTo a^ ce 6op#T 
3a npwsHaHMe. Maicap m AwnAOMnpaHM, 
xyAO^HMHKMTe He ynacTBaT paBHo- 

CTOHHO B M3AO>K6eHMH >KMBOT, p^AKO 

HAeHyBaT b tmaamkhm opraHM3ai^HM, 
npeHe6perBaHM ca npw >KypwpaHe m 
oTKynKM. F[oao6ho Ha CMTyauMflTa b 
Apyrw CTpaHM, ni>pBMTe 6-bArapKM, no- 

CTT>nMAM B /\ I> P >KaBHOTO pHCyBaAHO 

yHMAMme, He ca 6mam AonycKaHM ao 
„BeHepHMH aKT" KT>AeTO ce e pncyBaAO 

TOAO TflAO. TbM KaTO 6'bArapCKMTe 06- 
pa30BaTeAHM MHCTMTVIIPfM B o6AacTTa 
Ha M3o6pa3MTeAHOTO M3KVCTBO Ca Cb3- 

AaAeHM A°CTa ki>cho, M3KAK)HBaHeTO 
Ha ^ceHMTe He e npoAi>A)KMAo TOAKOBa 



I later, in 1928, Prof. Gledich 
- the then chairwoman of 
the International Federa- 
tion of University Women, 
was a guest of the Bulgar- 
ian branch. She had several 
meetings with professors at 
Sofia University and with 
state officials from the Min- 
istry of Education. 

The Lawyers* Section 
was formed first, in 1928. It 
turned into the biggest cor- 
porate organisation of the 
Bulgarian women's elite, with 
about a hundred and fifty members 
during the 1940s. The Section built up 
its own structures in the country. The 
interest in it was great, particularly in 
the 1930s, because of the difficulties for 
Bulgarian women to pursue a career in 
law. Women students had been admitted 
to the Law Department at Sofia Univer- 
sity in the academic year 1902/1903 (and 
507 women graduated until 1946), but 
women lawyers were not allowed to ap- 
pear as defense lawyers or judges before 
the communist regime took over (1945). 
Similarly to the situation with suffrage, 
it was not the Constitution or court law 
that barred women from practicing the 
legal profession, but rather patriarchal 
tradition and mens strong material in- 
terests. The Lawyers' Section was run 
by authoritative and internationally 
recognised jurists. Over the years it was 
presided by Maria Girginova - a jurist 
elected in 1930 as a member of the 
Council of the International Federation 
of Women Magistrates, Barristers and 
Members of Other Branches of the Legal 
Professions at Paris; Velisslava Radulova, 
who had specialised in commercial law 



20 



Ea. TAebun, npedcedameAKa na 
MembyHapobnama cf)ebepau,un 
na yHunepcumemcKume menu, 
u e-yta KAeM no speMe na mnx- 
nama BU3uma b BtAzapun npe3 
1926 2., b KOMnaHunrna na EKa- 
mepuna 3AamoycmoBa 

The visit (1926) of the 
Chairwoman of the International 
Federation of University Women 
Ellen Gleditsch and Ms. Klem 
in Bulgaria, in the company of 
Ekaterina Zlatoustova 




/VfcAro, koakoto Ha 3anaA. Caca npo- 
TecTa Ha hhkoako CTyAeHTKM ot icpan 
Ha 90-Te roAMHM Ha XIX b. npeACTaBM- 
TeAKMTe Ha „btopmh noA" Bene ca mo- 
>KeAM a^ ynacTBaT bt>b „BenepHMH aicr". 
B e>KeroAHMTe m3ao>k6m npe3 mok- 
AyBoeHHMa nepwoA ynacTBax okoao 74 

XyAO>KHMHKM OT TpM nOKOAeHMH, TBO- 
pHII^ B paSAMHHM ^KaHpOBe M CTMAOBC 

/\o AO^weHKMTe EAMcaBeTa KoHcyAOBa 
m EAeHa KapaMMxawAOBa ce Hape>KAaT 
Mama Y3VHOBa, HeBeHa raHHesa, Bepa 
AyKOBa, BacKa EMaHywAOBa, CyATaHa 
Cypy>KOH. KanecTBaTa Ha eKcnoHaTM- 
Te npMBAMHaT MHoro noceTMTeAM, ho 

M OCTpM KOMeHTapM Ha KpMTMKaTa. 

XyAO^CHMHKMTe ca o6bmhchm b noApa- 
^aTeACTBO Ha „mt>>kkoto" TBopnecTBO, 
AMnca Ha caMOCTOHTeAeH ctma, Ape6- 
HOTeMwe m CAa6a noArqTOBKa. Bi>npeKM 
TOBa ceKU[MHTa M3wrpaBa CBOflTa poAH - 
AaBa onopa Ha MAaAHTe m HeyBepeHMTe, 
noAnoiviara MaTepnaAHO 3a6oAeAMTe m 
6eAHMTe, M3Hacn m3ao^c6h 3aA rpaHwua: 
b BeArpaA h 3arpe6 (1937-1938). 

FIoAo6Ha poAH no OTHOineHMe Ha 
>KeHMTe, 3aHMMaBamn ce c KHM>KOBHa 
AeMHOCT, M3nrpaBa APyraTa ceKuwfl b 



in Italy and was a delegate in the Italian- 
Bulgarian Mixed Arbitration Court in 
Rome, and who was also elected to the 
board of the International Federation of 
Women Jurists in 1936 and nominated to 
the Committee on the Status of Women 
with the League of Nations in 1938. The 
Section's third chairwoman was Fany 
Kesyakova, whose career was typical of 
Bulgarian female jurists. She had gradu- 
ated in law from Sofia University, and 
worked as a secretary in private compa- 
nies and in foreign diplomatic missions. 
The professional and political rights 
of Bulgarian women jurists were the 
main focus of this Section. The stubborn 
efforts of some women lawyers - Dimi- 
trana Ivanova, leader of the Bulgarian 
Women's Union in the inter- war period, 
and Vera Zlatareva, one of the leaders 
of the lawyers' section of the BAUW 
- to enter the juridical profession are 
exciting examples of women's activism. 
The International Federation of Women 
Jurists provided support on this issue 
as early as 1929. Bulgarian women re- 
peatedly alerted their colleagues at the 
Federation congresses, but the Federa- 



21 




EAUcaeema 

KOHCJAOBa- 

Ba3ona 

(1881-1965) 

Elissaveta 

Konsulova- 

Vazova 

(1881-1965) 



/\BBO - KAy6tm na 6tA2apcKume 
nucameAKU. B Hero ca npneTM Han- 
3HaHMMMTe M M3BecTHM noeTecw m 6e- 

AeTpMCTKM, KOMTO MMaT M3AaA eHM Cb- 

HMHeHMii, ho He noAynaBaT npw3HaHMe 

OT CBOMTe KOAerM M OT FtMCaTeACKMH 

cbK)3. PT>KOBOAMTeAKM Ha KAy6a npe3 
roAMHMTe ca aBTopMTexHM n mhmi^m- 
aTMBHM ^ceHM KaTO EBreHMH Mapc, 
EAMcaBeTa Barpjma, Aio6a KacbpoBa 
m OaHM nonoBa-MyTa(|)OBa, a HAeHy- 
BaT Aopa Ta6e, Mapa BeAneBa, Amamh 
lUwinMaHOBa, Hna #30Ba, KaAMHa 
MaAHHa, MarAa nencaHOBa, MapnH 
Tpy6einAMeBa. Bcmhkm Te He >KaAHT 




Emenux 
Mapc 

(1879-1945) 

Evgenia 
Mars 

(1879-1945) 
- writer and 
playwright, 
member of 
the Club of 
the Bulgarian 
Women 
Writers 



tion was powerless to interfere because 
the problem was not related to labour 
issues, but rather to constitutional law 
- as argued by the powerful male politi- 
cians of the day. For this reason, at firs, 
the Section of Lawyers directed its ef- 
forts towards a judicial dispute of the 
Lawyers' Act, and sought simultaneous- 
ly political support to amend the Legal 
Structure Act. After the establishment 
of the authoritarian regime in Bulgaria 
(1934) the Ministers of Justice refused to 
discuss this case with the BAUW. Then 
the Section sought another strategy, 
namely, demanding women's suffrage. If 




Mapa 
EeAHeea 

(1868-1937) 

Mara 
Belcheva 

(1868-1937) 
-poet, mem- 
ber of the 
Club of the 
Bulgarian 
Women 
Writers 




/\opa Ta6e 

(1886-1983) 

Dora Gabe 

(1886-1983) 
- writer and 
poet, member 
of the Club of 
the Bulgarian 
Women 
Writers 



22 




EAticanema 




Bazpnua 




(1893-1992) 




Elissaveta 




Bagryana 




(1893-1992) 




- poet, mem- 




ber of the Club 




of the Bulgar- 




ian Women 




Writers 





CMAM 3a yTB'bp^CA aBaHeT Ha ^CeHCKMH 
KHPDKOBeH TpyA - ITbTyBaT 3a HeTeHMH 
M pei^HTaAM B npOBMHI^MHTa, roBopaT 

Ha K)6MAeiiHM HecTBamifl, oxKpMBaT 
m3ao>k6w Ha KHMrw, OTnenaTBaT am- 

TepaTypHM c6opHMUM M CTaTMM BT>B 

(J>eMMHMCTKaTa npeca. nwcaTeAKMTe 
ca necTM rocTM Ha aHaAorMHHM APy- 
^KecTBa b 6aAKaHCKMTe CTpaHM, a Bar- 
pHHa m Ta6e ynacTBaT b eBponeMCKMTe 
nEH-KOHrpecM. 

B /\BBO HaM-MHoro6poMHa m c no- 
AeAeHMH b npoBMHi^MHTa e CeKUunma 
na npauHUHKume (ocHOBaHa npes 
1928 r.), nacT ot MeMbynapobnama 




0aHU Tlono- 
sa-Myma(f>0Ba 

(1902-1977) 

FaniPopova- 
Mutafova 

(1902-1977) 
- one of the most 
successful women- 
writers of his- 
torical novels in 
Bulgaria, member 
of the Club of the 
Bulgarian Women 
Writers 



they would become full citizens, women 
could also hold positions in legislature. 
This is how another element of political 
feminism was added to the agenda of the 
BAUW. It had its analogues in Bulgaria 
prior to 1919 - the above-mentioned 
small suffragist formation Ravnopravie 
(Equal Rights Union) and the Bulgarian 
Women's Union. The Lawyers' Section 
sharply criticised the electoral bills of 
the authoritarian regime (1937-1938), 
which for the first time stipulated partial 
suffrage for 'legally married mothers! 
They argued that it was inappropriate 
to make civil status dependent on such 




Mazda 
nemKauona 

(1900-1970) 

Magda 
Petkanova 

(1900-1970) 
-poet, mem- 
ber of the 
Club of the 
Bulgarian 
Women 
Writers 




Htta 
Hsosa 

(1912-1974) 

Yana 
Yazova 

(1912-1974) 
- writer, 
member of 
the Club of 
the Bulgarian 
Women 
Writers 



23 



1*0*0*0** * * 



Ha yip«niT«ji»OTO Qacoaa*** la " InyOa Ha <J*JtPapc**f» aa- 
caTeiiH ■ hk 21 fliyapuft 1930 rO/U ttpactrcTayaa*** r-*ua ajmroycTO- 
ia,tipeA<jejiBTajria xa R-io aa o**ff*P««Tl> c* •«■■© o6paaoa«Kft»,r-«a. 
Bir**M««TpOBa f 5»r.KApe%» *n . BarpHRa, 3»0» aac*poaa, Ana SteAfHoaa, 
Kar*a W«»eoa b Bfcp* Baxamiaia. flopaaa <5o*acTt> OTcx»CTByaa?t t r*«« 
♦.Oonoaa MyTft«oa*,r-«a Hap* Bfctfiea* a r~*« *opa fa6o f aoa?o ex c*o 
0M*k »» P-H* 3**Toyer©a* t na a* <5jla<it% c*r»»cim « co**;i*p*h o* bci 
*■« p«a9aH«,voato c*<Sp*aaaTO »*oopat»i«. 
CiraacMO ©tfoaecTaaaa Jteaaaa* P«A»* 

1/ DpoHoTO ca aposoaoaa or* a*p»&*o «©AroT»KT#*HO c*eJpa»ao a ci 
npa« Osa* woayiaRKe, 

2/ r-«a il»da RacapOB* apoieT* npoaiTO -yexata aapaOottfa* o?* pi 

CBO*nTt> K»CHpQ&a^A\*faoaa m Bo***ae*a*yeTaa*r* c« np«o ft* huih At 
OaaiH it *3tt(ii&g*H. 

3/ 3a ceaperapHHT* c« Motfpaxa rocnoantl "i, Kae&poti a t E* Bar pan a, 
aJbjtAfsoftft a BoaAMi«a«,ionTO *e pao*p«;*#«»T* no *e*Ay padoraTa cit 

4/ flipa&ta cpoa/^aOiito ^dtpoTap^rtTo canaaa Wfi CTaae aa 30 t.k. 
Ha *a* cpoaa *e ce npeaaoaaT* ttacaTeauijXOKTO aa aaoaaT* xato hjic 
he h na Xay6a. 

Cetperap*. 






YnpedumeAeH npomoKOA na KAy6a Ha 6tAzap- 
CKume nucarneAKU, 1930 a. 

Constituent minutes of the Club of the Bulgarian 
Women Writers, 1930 

cf)edepau,uH na Menume MaaucmpamKU 
u adBOKamKU. Ochobch Bt>npoc 3a Hen 
ca npoc|)ecMOHaAHMTe m noAMTMnecKM- 
Te npaBa Ha lopucTKMTe. ^eHM ca ao~ 
nycHaTM ao K)pMAMHecKi4fl c^aKyATeT 
Ha co(J)mmckoto BMCine yHMAMme ome 
npe3 yne6HaTa 1902/1903 r. (ao 1946 r. 
507 ^ceHM ro saB^punsaT), ho ao 1944 r. 
Te He noAynaBaT bt>3mo>khoct a^ pa~ 
6otht b aABOKaTypaTa w CT>A a - Gbiijo 
KaKTo c Bi>npoca 3a M36wpaTeAHOTO 
npaBo, He ca KoHCTHTyiimrra mam 3a- 

KOHT>T 3a CbAHAMUjaTa Te3M, KOMTO 

3a6paHHBaT Ha iopMCTKMTe Aa npaK- 
TMKyBaT CBOHTa npo(J)ecMH, a naTpwap- 
xaAHaTa TpaAwuMH m cMAHMTe mt>)kkm 
MaTepwaAHM wHTepecii (Ae(f)MHiipaHM 
m 3an;MTaBaHM ot ynpa)KHHBamMTe 
noAMTMMecKaTa BAacT). CAeA a^hao- 
MwpaHe Te He MoraT a& ynpa>KHHBaT 



criteria as 'marriage' and 'maternity,' 
and to deprive of active suffrage adop- 
tive mothers, women with children born 
out of wedlock, childless, and single 
women. The acts were enforced, but in 
reality did not enable women lawyers to 
practice law, married women even. For 
instance, the Supreme Council of Law- 
yers and the Supreme Cassation Court 
revoked the permit for length of service, 
which Sofia Council of Lawyers had 
given to the Lawyers' Section secretary, 
Dr. Vera Zlatareva (1938) in response 
to the professional rights acquired by 
her. During the next year, at the order 
of the Police, Zlatareva was removed 
from the Section of Lawyers under the 
pretext that she was connected to the 
banned Communist Party. The lawyers' 
rights campaign remained in deadlock 
during the Second World War. On the 
eve of World War II, Bulgaria and Al- 
bania were the only countries in the 
Balkans, where women graduates from 
law schools were not allowed to serve 
as judges and lawyers for the defense 
(Greek women lawyers received this 
right in 1926, Yugoslav women in 1927, 
Turkish women in 1928, and Romanian 
women in 1929). 

Women artists and women archi- 
tects had to fight for recognition, too. 
Similar to the situation elsewhere, 
Bulgarian women artists, who studied 
at the Arts Academy, were not allowed 
initially to attend "evening act" classes 
(that is, nude-body drawing classes). 
Because Bulgarian art institutions 
were established much later, women's 
exclusion did not last as long as in the 
West; after protests of some students, 
by the late 1890s women enrolled in 
such classes. The second BAUW Sec- 



24 



SOPN 



H31 KAPHHATyPHATA rAllEPHfl HA AH flOEPHHOBl 

(>KeMH— nwcaTt-iKM) 




GAHAA HOBHEBA *AHK MMM-IOTMIIft tUrjU BETXAHOftA ton HflAXWEU 




yfiK-> CTEflA MBA 




MAPfffi rpy&Eliira*£BA J1KSA HACIP08A HAJIKHA MAJ1KKA 



'mmmmmmmmm 



ApymecKU mapmose ua nucameAKu om Aack- 
cand-bp /\o6puHOB, 30-me zobunu ua XX b. 

Friendly take-offs of Bulgarian women writers by 
Alexander Dobrinov, 1930s 



npocJDecMjiTa cm c o6flCHeHMexo, ne hh- 
MaT noAMTMMecKM npaBa m He MoraT a& 
ynacTBax b M36opn. 3aTOBa noBeneTo 
npaBMCTKM ce Aenpo<t)ecMOHaAM3M- 
paT, a Apyrw pa6oTHT 
KaTo cexpeTapKH b ci>- 

AMAMlI^aTa, CAy^KMTeAKM 

b aABOKaTCKM 6iopa, 

HMHOBHMMKM B MMHMC- 

TepcTBaTa, vHMTeAKM. 

P'bKOBOACTBOTO Ha CeK- 
HMflTa Ha npaBHMHKMTe, 
CbCTaBeHO OT M3KAK)- 

HMTeAHO noAroTBeHM 

K)pMCTKM - BeAMCAaBa 

PaAyAOBa (1884-?) (cne- 

!J,MaAM3MpaAa T"bprOBCKO 

npaBo m ACAempaHa b 
I4TaAMaHCKo-6i>Arap- 
ckmh cMeceH ap6nTpa- 



tion was that of Women Artists, also 
founded in 1928. Its main goal was to 
nourish the professional career devel- 
opment of educated Bulgarian women 
artists. The artistic sphere in Bulgaria 
was not open to women, even though 
actresses and female musicians were 
abundant, and despite the fact that 
women had been admitted to the Art 
School ever since its establishment in 
1896. A great part of women gradu- 
ates rarely exhibited their works in 
independent and international exhibi- 
tions; they were seldom members of 
professional organisations, some of 
them turned into parlour artists, work- 
ing at home and for themselves. After 
the First World War some Bulgarian 
women artists specialised abroad, par- 
ticipated in exhibitions and in new so- 
cieties of artists. Their creative work, 
however, had no recognition in Bulgar- 
ian society: they were not admitted to 
art societies' boards or as lecturers in 
the Academy of Fine Arts, and they did 
not participate in commissions buying 
pictures at exhibitions. 

KAy6tm na 6tAzapcKume nucameAKu npe3 30-me zobunu 
ua XX s. 

The Bulgarian Women Writers' Club, 1930s 



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Tnjnca > poR*Ka *% rp.KJtaaJijifcK*, I7.I.I976 rcfr.,*KB*Co$Ka\ 

y3i.npecaa»fc l# 9, 

rocnoRwn% UHMitCTpB, aa HapeRKre np»yYai.psftairaHaTo ma rcrasa K* 
X& crane bv HaJS-cscopo speMe.aa.xa He ce rronpeqK ha p*xoBH*r& 

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pa3B«aa,if kokto ce c*c*ok rsatfHo a* tanacaHe ha ckaskh, yorp^fl 
bah« «a nrydaswmn e^Apmrttii h np« 



Ca<pHA,I2 ceraeifl>pMS» 1936 r 



Upej^Si 4 " 



CnuciiK hu HAeHKume na HacmoHmeAcmBomo u KoHmpoAnama komucuh na ApyMecmsomo Ha 
6i>AzapKume c Buciue o6pa30BaHue 

Register of the members of the governing board of the Druzhestvoto na bulgarkite s visshe obra- 
zovanie (Association of Bulgarian Women University Graduates) 



>KeH ct>a), OaHM KecHKOBa (1891-?) u 
A-p Bepa 3AaTapeBa (m>pBaTa >KeHa 
c npMAo6wTa aABOKaTCKa npaBocno- 
co6hoct b Bi>ArapMH npe3 1945 r.), 
KaKTO m AMAepKaTa (1926-1944) Ha 

Bl>ArapCKMH >KeHCKM CbK)3 B MOKAyBO- 

eHHMH nepwoA A MMMT P aHa MeaHOBa 
(1881-1960), cT>mo lopwcTKa, boa^t 
HenpeK'bCHaTa 6op6a c noAMTMnecKMH 

(mT>>KKm) eCTa6AMIUM'bHT B ycMAMe A a 

6i>AaT npw3HaTM npo^ecwoHaAHMTe 
npaBa Ha >KeHHTe-K)pwcTiot b B-bAra- 
pMH. B HaBenepMeTo Ha BTopaTa CBe- 
TOBHa BOMHa BijArapnH m AA6aHMH ca 
eAMHCTBeHMTe cTpaHM Ha BaAKaHMTe, 

B KOMTO >KeHHTe KOpMCTKM He Ca MMaAM 

npaso A a 6i>A a T ch^viviKvi m aABOKaTKM. 
(rpiii^KMTe lopMCTKM noAynaBaT TOBa 
npaBO npe3 1926 r., lorocAascKMTe - 
npe3 1927 r. ? TypCKMTe - npe3 1928 r., 



The Section of Women Artists was 
not numerous, but it engaged almost all 
professionally active women artists in 
Bulgaria. Three generations of women 
- working in various genres and styles, 
participated in annual BAUW exhibi- 
tions (1928-1943), which attracted a 
lot of visitors and provoked a debate 
concerning women's creative work! Sex- 
ist critics described women's work as 
picturesque, imitative of mens art, and 
of low quality. Regardless of the critics' 
opinion, the Section stimulated young 
women artists, rendered assistance to 
the ill and poor, and exported Bulgarian 
women's art work abroad. In 1937 and 
1938 a BAUW exhibition visited Bel- 
grade and Zagreb, and had a remarkable 
success there. The Section also motivat- 
ed women artists to hold independent 



26 



a pyM-bHCKHTe - npe3 1929 r.) AEBO e 
yHMii^o>KeHO ot KOMyHMCTMnecKMH pe- 
>kmm npe3 1950 r. 3aeAHO c MHoronap- 

TMMHaTa CMCTeMa M peA (j)eMMHMCTKM M 

Apyrn rpa^AaHCKM opraHM3auwM. 

CnoMeHaTMTe no-rope opraHH3a- 

UMM Ca HaM-aKTMBHMTe m bmammm b 

ny6AMMHOTo npocTpaHCTBo Ha 6yp- 
)Koa3Ha BijArapMH. HapeA c thx o6ane 
AO 1944 r. cbujecTBVBaT m APy™ o6e- 
AMHeHMH Ha 6i»ArapcKMTe >KeHM. ripe3 
1909 r. nopaAM BT>TpeiumiTe agachmh m 

npOTMBOpeHMH B >KeHCKOTO j\BnmeHne 

(m cneuwaAHO b B)KC) e cb3AaAeHa 
HOBa (^eMMHMCTKa ^ceHCKa opraHM3a- 

UMfl - Ct>f03 „PilBHOnpaBUe" (lA3BeCTH2L 

ouje KaTo C&K)3 na nanpebuuHanume 
Menu). HeiiHaTa nonsa e npoBotcwpaHa 

M OT HHKOM Me>KAyHapOAHM pa3BMTMH, 

a MMeHHO >K6HCKaTa cy4>pa>KPicTKa 
KaMnaHMH b 3anaAHa EBpona, kohto 
HacTOHBa ^eHMTe Aa noAynaT m36m- 
paTeAHM npaBa npn ctmnTe vcaobmh, 

KaKBMTO cbmecTByBaT 3a MT?>KeTe OT 

THXHaTa KAaca. Tlpe3 1907 r. Rmopuxm 
UHYnepnau^uoHaA o6nBHBa McxaHeTO 
3a paBHo HeorpaHMneHO M36wpaTeAHo 
npaBO Ha B"b3pacTHMTe MT>>Ke m >kchm. 




exhibitions in Bulgaria and abroad, as 
well as to participate in general art exhi- 
bitions and those of individual societies. 
The third BAUW section was the 
Club of Bulgarian Women Writers, 
founded in 1930. About forty of the 
most renowned and recognised female 
poets and writers were members of 
BAUW. Its leaders were authoritative 
and enterprising women: Evgenia Mars 

- a playwright and writer, creator of 
a literary salon; Elissaveta Bagryana 

- a leading modern Bulgarian poetess 
from the inter-war period, and Fani 
Popova-Mutafova - a writer of highly 
popular historical novels and novellas, 
and a translator with right-wing views 
regarding gender roles. 

Most of the Club members had uni- 
versity education. They were famous 
journalists and translators, active in the 
public sphere, and members of charity 
and cultural societies. They were united 
by the desire (the Clubs goal, too) to 
gain a prominent role in the male- 
dominated sphere of literature as well as 
equal rights in publishing and payment. 
For this purpose they organised literary 

BBMmmtMBtiBMBm ladings, lectures, 

celebrations, and 
book launches in 
the capital and other 
parts of the country. 
The Club published 
several collections 
of women's writings 
as well as dozens 
of articles in the 
feminist press. It 
established contacts 
abroad, paid mu- 
tual visits to similar 
women's societies in 



AuMumpana Mnauosa (1881-1960) 
- ynumeAKa, wcypnaAucmKa, pebaK- 
mopKa; npedcedameAKa na B^AzapcKun 
mencKU cbf03 om 1 926 do 1 944 z.; HAen- 
kol na 6opda na MembynapobHUH clau- 
anc 3a mchcko u36upameAHO npaso u 
pasHU zpaytbancKu npaBa (1935-1940). 

Dimitrana Ivanova (1881-1960) - 
teacher, journalist, and editor; leader 
(1926-1944) and ideologist of the femi- 
nist Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz (Bulgarian 
Women's Union); member of the Board 
of the International Alliance of Women 
for Suffrage and Equal Citizenship 
(1935-1940). 



27 



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npBBHjia npajEtcox^fWa ri« BHHJ ^a ca rcpucfcajtycHBTttfo ottoi 049 
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ca cjie^HKTe: 

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AoKyAtewnu 3a AUKBudupanemo ho, ApywecniBomo ua 6^AzapKume c Buciue o6pd30Banue 

Documents related to the termination of the activities of the Druzhestvoto na bulgarkite s viss- 
he obrazovanie (Association of Bulgarian Women University Graduates) 



28 



BepoflTHo OKypa^ceHa ot bcmhko TOBa, 
AHHa KapwMa Hanycxa BtAzapcKun 
ofcencKU C7fW3 pi ci>3AaBa 3aeAHo c MaA- 
Ka rpyna ot 6wbuim hachkm Ha Ci>io3a 
ropecnoMeHaTaTa HOBa opraHM3aiiM;i, 
kohto ce nocBeujaBa Ha M3BOK)BaHe Ha 
rpa>KAaHCKM m noAMTMnecKM npaBa 3a 

^CeHMTe. MMeHHO HAeHKMTe Ha C&H)3 

„PaBHonpaB ue" M3npamaT neTvii^MW ao 
6T>ArapcKMH napAaMeHT npe3 1909 r., 
HacTOHBawKM 3a npoMeHM b M36wpa- 

TeAHMH 3aKOH, KOMTO A^ n03BOAHT Ha 

>KeHMTe a^ rAacyBai\ Ilo TOBa BpeMe 
Bene BT>npocbT 3a paBHonpaBwexo Ha 
>KeHMTe m Mii^ceTe e Me>KAy ochobhmtc 
npnopHxeTM m Ha B>KC. 

AseTe >KeHCKM opraHM3auMM 
- C&W3 „PaBHonpaGue" (kaohhuj 
noBene kt>m ahboto npocTpaHCTBo) m 

B)KC - Ca B ACMCTBHTeAHOCT A BMra ' 

TeAHT Ha Cy4)pa^CMCTKOTO ABM^ceHMe 

b B-bArapMH. Bi>npeKM ne cnopeA TT>p- 
HOBCKaTa KOHCTHTyqwH m M36wpaTeA- 
hmh 3aKOH 6i>ArapcKMTe ^ceHM He ca 

M3pMHHO M3KAK)HeHM OT npaBOTO Ha 

rAac, naTpwapxaAHMHT o6MHaM m Tpa- 
Amuma pa3rAe^cAaT KaTO „rpa>KAaHM" 
caMO M*b>KeTe, KoraTO CTaBa BT>npoc 

3a C<j>epM, CB"bp3aHM CbC couMaAeH 
npeCTM>K M BAaCT. (BCMHKM MT>)Ke, 
BKAIOMMTeAHO TC3M OT MaAUMHCTBaTa, 

noAynaBaT M36MpaTeAHM npaBa.) Bop- 
6aTa cpeury TpaAMiiMflTa ce OKa3Ba b 
AencTBHTeAHOCT mhoto no-TpyAHa, 

OTKOAKOTO M3KOBaBaHeTO Ha HOBM 3a- 

kohm. >KeHCKOTo M36npaTeAHO npaBO e 
pa3peiueHO eABa b Kpan Ha 30-Te toam- 
hm Ha XX b. F[pe3 1937 r. „MaMKMTe ot 
3aKOHeH 6paK" noAynaBaT npaBOTO Aa 
rAacysaT b MecTHHTe M36opn, a npe3 
1938 r. bcmhkm )KeHM HaA 21 toamhm, 
komto npMHaAAe^caT ki>m KaTeropMMTe 
„OMi>>KeHM, pa3BeAeHM mam baobmlim", 



cieties in Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece, 
Hungary, and Slovakia, and exchanged 
with the latter translated works in the 
respective languages; it also worked in 
collaboration with the PEN, whose Bul- 
garian section was managed by the po- 
etess and Club member Dora Gabe. The 
Club had notable public prestige; some 
of the members gave their opinions on 
cultural legislation; it co-operated with 
public organisations; and was finan- 
cially stable. It was not accidental that 
in 1934 it left the BAUW and continued 
its independent existence. Unlike the 
situation of women artists, the profes- 
sional activities of women writers were 
broadly accepted in Bulgarian society, 
and they did not need BAUW support. 

The fourth BAUW Section was that 
of Women Students , formed in 1937. It 
was created in response to the growing 
number of female law students in the 
BAUW, though the Association had 
kept a watchful eye on them for many 
years, and through a special commis- 
sion they created a girls' hostel (1939) 
in the capital. Soon the Section s mem- 
bers were confronted with the Commu- 
nist women's movement, which wanted 
to overtake the Section. Probably this 
was the reason why the Students' Sec- 
tion had a very brief life (up to 1945). 
Its main activities were protests against 
the limitations to women's admission 
to some faculties at Sofia University, 
implemented by the university admin- 
istration under the pressure of the gov- 
ernment in 1939-1941. 

As early as September 1944 the head 
of the Fatherland Front (Tsola Drago- 
jcheva) and the Chairman of the Com- 
munist Party (Georgi Dimitrov) decided 
that women's organisations in Bulgaria 



29 



ca AonycHaTM ao VHacTwe b napAa- 
MeHTapHUTe M36opw (ho hc m neowb- 
^eHMTe Bi.3pacTHM >Kemi). Bmaho e, 
Me 3aKOHOAaTeAMTe TpeTwpaT >KeHMTe 

He KaTO OTAeAHM HOBeiUKM CblljeCTBa, 
He KaTO MHAMBMAM (b TepMMHM Ha AM- 

6epaAHaTa MAeoAorMfl), a KaTO 3aBM- 
ci4MM, a(J>wAMwpaHM kt>m rpa>KAaHi4Te 
(Mi>^ce) Ha Haij[MOHaAHaTa A^P^aBa. B 
to3m cAynaii >KeHMTe ca AG(J>MHMpaHM 
KaTO rpa^cA^HKM eA^HCTBeHO npe3 ao- 

CTOMHCTBOTO Ha CBOHTa CBT>p3aHOCT 

Cbc CT>npy3MTe cm (HacxofluiM, 6mbuim 
mam AopM mt>ptbm!). Tpa6Ba a& 6T>Ae 
noA^epTaHo cbiuo, He hobmht i436wpa- 
TeAeH 3aKOH A^P^a >KeHMTe c upaBO- 
to caMo Aa rAacyBaT, ho He m a& 6'bA aT 
M36npaHM (T.e. Te noAynaBaT caMo aK- 
tmbho M36MpaTeAHO npaBo). 

06p-btu,eHue KbM Menume uaSuparneAKU, 1938 z. 
An address to women-voters, 1938 



KT>MT> >KEHHT* H3EHPATEJM 

3a OfoUHHCKHTt CbBtTVIw *BXm. n(L 

CecTpw an* rpaffOBt m cejia* 
Bi>/!rapcHH rpa>KAa HKM * 



Ha&noaie h hhb, SbAfapctcwrk 

M*Hn t Natca p-b cawo wa&KHrk orb 

FBXV, CMC nOBMKOHW A» ABACK* 

maca cm »b m6opnrb aa o6iumh- 

chh cbaerHHUH. 

ripH3M«TOTO MM t\pB>&0 HM K3CM- 

pareiib 3a Mao* a mhoto saw mo. 
saiMOTo to mm oraapa apaTara na 
C< HaHMtawe bt» pa6orwrfe KS 06- 
uimmbtb. ft o6niMMaTa e hb8-6/im3- 
koto yHpemftCHHe 3a bchhkh ttacb. 

GWAb C«WB»CtBOTO, T* C, HOSTO 

Tpt6sa ua cc rpn*m 3a ecfeKtt 
bammi** mm ay tub a> bbho cenwuie, 
kopto th oSxeema. Ta e ro/rfeworo 
cchchctbo, Koero npn6Hpa bcm%<m 

hh on> <AHO M^CTO* 

Orb ynpooncBHero MaoStMnwaTa 
aaaMCM ab/ih Hauuero cfemitue, rpaav 
maw ca/»o, e 6flaroycTpoeHO, Aann 
MMana yAoocraara 3a cao* jqonv — 
ocatTJWMMe, Boaa, KBHariK. abam w«» 
mc tiMCrora Bb rpana ham ccaoto, 
aba* ca noftbpma xttrtteHaTB u C€ 
aseMarb m^pkh aa ce npeAorapa* 
TBBarb 6on€C7MTE mam or pan km a < 

so rfcxHoro pa3npocrpa«aMHe» abjim 

WMBMe 3B HBlUHTfc acub ao6p« ype- 

a«mh ynn«HU4a o> crpaAM sbpbbm 
h xnrncKH^Hw, a«am ca nonarafb 
rpHHiM 3a noHHHvsa, abah HMane 



rpMmw 3a Hyj«AaemMri ce « na- m h« ma aoh*cb> Ao6po aa oSimm 



MotuMMTB m rip. np. 

R fiCHHKO TOB* 38C»ra MMOrO 

6hm30 aciKO caMeMcrao, 3ac*ra naft- 
HHoro we tiara Bb rosa caweftcrBo. 

Toaa ca pasSpa Haft^nocne orb 
TBM-b, orb K^aero 3aa«ctuj€ «<e* 
h»tb ab 6^Aa AonycTH8Ta a» yna* 
Cray a a ab o&MMHHrfc, Mawapb h na 
cbscaMb cnpaaaAAMso ab ca p&y 
peujft To&a yMBcrne 

Ct> Hapefl6«ia*3BKOHb 3a m36m^ 

PBM€ MACHOBC 38 o6mMHCKMT% Cb' 
BCTM MBCb MM AOfiyCTMBXB A« 6&* 



Ae«b M36HparaAM, Aa AaABMb TABca 

CM BTb M36opHTb 3B 06tMMMCKM Cb" 

aem T"b3M M35opn uua craMarb ab 
Haft-tKopo Bpawa — Macaub Maprb 
e onpaA'bAaMb 3a r%xv. 

Hue *ceffumm»Ma£r(U* teoumo 
cue donyciTiKamu do mutt us6opu 
mpmdea da yH-acmsymue :#» m/vc*. 

BCBKB M8HKa ( NQJtfO MHfl npBBO 
Ha TABCb, TpWflA AB CC «BM Cb 6lO- 
/1-eTMHB BV RMKB Bb ABM*, Bb KOIirO 

e onpeAfeJieHb M36ope sa rtxHara 
o6mHHa. 

Nation M&&<ca 4a nt ctomnasta 
omtf mom cu npn*o t uumo da ce 
ocmaiH 4a ne 6*3* donycmH&ma 
da to ynpaotCHv. 

ABBatfero hbmmma raacb a ce bamo 
aseMBMBTO Kaftnara a/mb 3b peAB 

HB o6lUMHBTa* f\ K8KTO Ay M 8TB MB 
MaftKBTB B UBHMB 3B CBMeflCTaOTO, 

rbft h Aywara wa mcHBTB a ubmmb 

3B 06lUMMaTB- 

Bcukku mo&ku 4a yttpaxcmMh 
csoemo npaso 4a u$6upa*e 060411*+ 
cKumib c96emHuu.il ha nam tin zpa4t 
uau ce*o. 

ScHkb MaH«a rp1>6aa ab ce 3a- 
MMOtM 3B Koro uit r/iacyBB m Aa 
Abab rnaca cm 3b roan, aa ko&Vo th 
e p»36paAa r MB a yHeHb^ m nectBHb 



H8T*. 

Cectpw on» rpaAoee h ceAa> 
Aa ynpa>KHMMb npHAo6HToro cm 

npBBO MB MSOMpBTBAb 3B o6uUMHCWM 
CbBBTMHUMl Ab ABQBM^b TABCB CM R0 

HHcra cbaccTb ab abms ho M36opHral 
Ab fiocoHKM'b, 4pB3b 6ioneTi«tM- 

KBTB Bib pBtKBv AOCTOHHM CbBBTHMUM 
3B HBUIMrfe otitUMHMl 

Cotym, ID fiiyapMM 1937 r. 

Oath KoHurntma na 
E+AtapcHU MeftCHU cwo&v 



Cq4>hhckh rpa>«AaMRH t 

Ejiotc bcmhkh na cir6paHHeTO t ro«to Bt/irapCKH 
>KeKCK§i C-bK>3i» ypejHjaa Ha 17 t. m., cptAa, wh 6 u 
rro/roBHiia Haca, m* canoHa Ha Bociihhh Hity6%. 

UU« roaopurb* Ah«- Mmhom hHPW» nett>oga. 



i 



% 



had to open up to the masses and be- 
come subordinated to the state. Thus 
women's organisations were placed 
under the control of two Zhenski otdeli 
(women's departments) controlled by 
the communists. Under their instruc- 
tions, women members of the Commu- 
nist Party and the coalition parties were 
obliged to replace the leadership bodies 
of all feminist organisations, the BAUW 
included. The BAUW changed its board 
very soon - in November 1944. 

Organisational life was also politi- 
cised and gradually declined. Lectures 
turned into propaganda meetings, with 
leading women communists speaking 
about Stalin, women and science in the 
USSR, and so on. These meetings were 
scarcely attended, they were monitored 
by agents of the Political Police, who 
drew up dossiers (now kept in the Cen- 
tral State Archive) with 'compromising 
facts' about past activity, marital status 
and families, health, beliefs etc. of most 
of the active members. However, the de- 
struction of the BAUW by the Bulgar- 
ian authorities continued: in 1948 the 
property of the Association was confis- 
cated, its archives were scattered, and 
its organisational life came to an end. 
In the middle of 1950 the organisation 
was closed down and only the mem- 
bers of the older generation informally 
discussed the idea of transforming the 
BAUW into a Women's Section with the 
Bulgarian Academy of Science, which 
proved to be illusionary. 



♦ ♦♦ 



■ 




By the end of 1880s and the begin- 
ning of the 1890s socialist ideas had 
made their way to Bulgaria. Bulgar- 
ian socialists - like socialists elsewhere, 






30 



06uiecmeo a noAamutca 

■!■■■ ii mi 1 i n i K ii mn mn iia ^a wMil* i i wm. i i i»w«— — ^— 

nPEJlCTOBUiHTt 3AK0H0flATEIH H3B0PH 

YqacTHero na 6i»Arapkara im> 
HamHfl oGmecTaeHfc Abbot* 



HeTHpW AHH HH JliflHTt 0Tb H3<3opHTt, 

kohto Haft-nanpcAt me ce npottaae- 
Jtan. bt> IHyMeHCKara o&iacTb, r<wife- 
MO o*KmweHHe oe'ie ce aafje/iHsna h 

BV JKCHCKHft Cp"fc,«H, JKeHHTli y fiaCTi 
HMOTb npHAO^KBKH 3a K3KBHTO Bb MMOro 

no-cTapa cTpa«H owe ce 6opaTb. Tm 
repM/to6HSKH, HanbaaMe ce me tjAaarh 
paainapeHM. Hau<nrfc MaflKH, wenH n 



cecTpn 3acay*aBaT-b tobju y^acTuero 

HMTi Bb IKWmTM'JCCKHS HCHBOTb HapaB- 

ko cb ma acerb e cano orb nojm. 
[Ipn ii-bpBHTh HsOopH, Koraro 6"wirap-j 
KaTA ynpamiiH euonrt*. H36ftp&temm 
npaBa, meion-l. riOKaaaxa mush Hmt- 
pecb h iviacyBaxa MacoBO, CHrypno h 
bt> tipeflCTOHimtit «3CopH rt we B3e- 

M3Tb MaCOBO ylSCTHC. 




npejuraBHTejiKa ua MfeHCKHH cmo31> oOntimBa iia roa-fcMO wencKO c-bfipamie 
mmchoto 3iia*iemte na ssKoira, Koflto ftaoa rafiHparejinw npaaa ira fojirapKaia 

Cmamun 3a ynacmuemo na 6tAzapcKama 
Menu b mGopume, 1938 z. 

Article about the participation of women in the 
elections, 1938 

CMTyau[MHTa c M36MpaTeAHMTe 
npaBa Ha G'bArapcKMTe >KeHM e no- 
Ao6Ha c Ta3M Ha OpaHiiMji m IIlBeMija- 
pMH, komto MHoro paHO npoKAaMMpaT 

yHMBepcaAHO Ml>>KKO M36npaTeAHO 

npaBO (m AonycKaT aceHM M36npa- 

TeAKM MHOrO ICbCHo) M pa3AM4Ha OT 
Ta3M B TepMaHMH M BeAMK06pMTaH14H, 

Ki>AeTO KAacoBaTa npMHaAAe>KHOCT 
Ai>Aro BpeMe e 6nAa 6apnepa m 3a 
M36MpaTeAHMTe npasa Ha Mi>>KeTe. B 

TepMaHMH M BeAMK06pMTaHMH >KeHMTe 

noAynaBaT Te3M npaBa MHoro cKopo 
CAeA Kaxo e rAacysaHO yHMBepcaAHO- 
to mtj^ko M36wpaTeAHO npaBO. 

C npOHMKBaHCTO Ha COUMaAMC- 

TMHecKMTe MAew b CTpaHaTa npe3 
80-Te-90-Te toamhh Ha XIX b. 6'bA- 
rapcKMTe mm nocAeAOBaTeAM, KaKTo w 
coi^MaAMCTMTe b APy™ T e CTpaHH, ca 
cpeA m>pBMTe, komto npo^iciii^MpaT 



were among the first to propagate 
the cause of "women's liberation! The 
Marxist-socialist message to women 
was quite influential as it was widely 
propagated in socialist newspapers 
and magazines such as Suvremenen 
Pokazatel (Contemporary Barometer) 
or Novo Vreme (New Times) as well as 
in the women's socialist journal Zhenski 
trud (Women's Labor), From the very 
beginning of the Bulgarian Women's 
Union in 1901 Bulgarian socialists per- 
manently criticized feminists as "bour- 
geois," repeating the arguments of the 
Second International Working Men's As- 
sociation, which claimed that women's 
solidarity across class lines was impos- 
sible. According to the socialist vision 
of women's emancipation, the "woman's 
question" could be resolved only after 
the triumph of the socialist revolution. 
Although women socialists, led by Vela 
Blagoeva (1858-1921) had initially 
joined the Bulgarian Women's Union, 
they embraced the party line later and 
started condemning feminists and ac- 
cusing them of "separatism". In 1903 
socialist women split from the Women's 
Union because of their objections to its 
"above-class stance". (Women socialists 
had actually reproduced the split within 
the male socialist movement earlier 
the same year.) Later on, Vela Blagoeva 
founded the periodical Zhenski Trud, 
and started working to build a social- 
democratic women's organization. At the 
beginning of 1905 she founded the first 
educational social-democratic group for 
women workers in Sofia, and organized 
the first conference of socialist women 
in August 1905. This provoked a heated 
debate in socialist periodicals. Some 
saw it as a separatist women's organiza- 



31 




1037 rojx. 



UeHa i jib. 



....J i ..!■■■■■■■■! 



JhmM 



HAIHEHUH 

0/715 VydoMupt 







*tj? 






? V."^S 



— Oeao jtajM, Uenol Aua AeAZ Toma, namo mpn nMmn e 6aU3* 
nuAa, natct ah edna 6/OAemuHa tqe nycne npez* speue ua u3ffopa, a? 






IH IIIII I I Jl ll ll. li B l l llll ltfll llll H l l l lH I I I 



v 






KapuKamypa 3a ynacmuemo na Menume s U3- 
6opume, 1937 a. 

Caricature about women's participation in the 
elections, 1937 

Heo6xoAMMOCTTa ot „ocBo6o>KAeHMe 
Ha >KeHMTe". MapKCMCTKOTO nocAa- 
Hwe icbM >KeHMTe e npOKAaMMpaHO b 
coi^waAMCTMHecKM BecTHMi4M m cnwca- 
hmh KaTO „Ci>BpeMeHHUu noKa3ameA H t 
„Ho80 BpeAte", a no-Ki>CHO m b ^ceHCKO- 
to coi^waAMCTMHecKO cnwcaHMe „)KeH- 
cku rnpyd". Ouje ci>c cb3AaBaHeTo Ha 
B)KC npe3 1901 r. G'bArapCKMTe couwa- 

AMCTM HenpeKT>CHaTO KpMTMKyBaT HAe- 

HyBamMTe b Hero 4>eMMHMCTKM KaTO 
„6yp>Koa3KJ4" noBTapHMKM apryMeH- 
TMTe Ha Bmopun UHmepHat^uonaA, ne 

e HeBT>3MO>KHa )KeHCKa COAMAapHOCT, 

npeHe6perBama KAacoBMTe pa3AMMMH. 
CnopeA coi^waAMCTMHecKaTa bm3mh 
3a xceHCKa eMaHuwnauMfl „>KeHCKMHT 
Bi>npoc" 6m Mon>A a& 6i>^e pa3peuieH 
caMO CAeA TpnyM(J)a Ha couMaAMC- 
TMHecKaTa peBOAiouna. Bi>npeKM ne 

OTHaHaAO COUMaAMCTIOlTe, BOAeHH OT 



tion that posed the danger of launching 
proletarian women's opposition to the 
all-workers movement. The so-called 
"narrow" socialists (i.e. orthodox social- 
ists and future Bolsheviks) led by Dim- 
itur Blagoev - Vela Blagoeva's husband, 
were against "a neutral women's union" 
while the "broad" socialists (the future 
social democrats) recommended the es- 
tablishment of an independent women's 
organization. The attempt to organize 
a separate structure for women social 
democrats failed at that moment, but 
it challenged the "bourgeois" Women's 
Union to make stronger efforts at unit- 
ing all women activists in the country. 
Nine years later, in August 1914, Vela 
Blagoeva chaired the Founding Con- 
ference of Women's Socialist Clubs in 
Bulgaria, following an instruction of 
the Central Committee of the Bulgarian 
Worker's Social-Democratic Party ("nar- 
row" socialists). The conference elected 
a Central Women's Commission with 
Tina Kirkova in charge (1914-1923). 

The next step in organizing leftist 
women was the conference of women 
communists in 1919. The participants 
in it belonged to circles that were very 
close to the already Bolshevized Bulgar- 
ian Communist Party (former "narrow" 
socialists). Soon after it, Women Com- 
munists started publishing the newspa- 
pers Ravenstvo (Equality, 1919-1923) 
and Rabotnichka (Woman Worker) 
that propagated Bolshevism. They par- 
ticipated in the activities, organized 
by the Communist Party. During the 
1920s, some of them were tried in court 
because of being involved in anti-state 
communist activities, but they man- 
aged to escape to Soviet Russia - among 
them the well-known activists of the 



32 



37 TOR, 



*****&, * *- ,„ 






-*-w. gj> * 



-m 






j! " ' ■ ■ 



CDOBOAHH H3BOP H*,* 

ort: K, KaMeHOB'b 




M3Bt&pATE*1KATA^J- JI eCHO e jia Kan<aTi>, *ce cm riia- 
cysare 3a koBto ch Hclme, aftta Hf&ftri jim aa Mofto got 
jko My e TeiwKa pXKata! 



MJL.JI I ltllllliJIi l ^lL l .ifP^fU.JmHi.l 



17 fOJl. 



iiom. HCK 



IlPEtfb H3BHPAT. CIIHCbllH HA >KEHHTB 




CkuHMurib Mapw, peanut*, y*M% m6&pm% mfc.in 



• 



«•«. 



roaiiwiTt! , ■> ' 

**• .^ .i - iKW 



I 





" >, ■* • 



I 



nPEJTb' H3EOPHTB ~" 



. 11 .| Hi i|j..i u mn 

,*-.d£*Sa4 




IPH 1937 rOAHHA 




KapuKamypu sa ynacmuemo ua meHume s u36opume, 1937 z. 
Caricatures about women's participation in the elections, 1937 



33 




BeAa EAazoena 

(1858-1921) - ynumeA- 
Ka, mypnaAucmKa, 
npeeodanKa; ocHosa- 
meAKa u AudepKa na 
MencKomo couuaAuc- 
munecKO bsuMenue b 
B-bAzapux 

Vela Blagoeva 

(1858-1921) - teacher, 
journalist, writer, 
translator; founder 
and one of the leaders 
of the socialist women's 
movement in Bulgaria 



BeAa BAaroeBa, ce npMCi>eAMH>iBaT 

ICbM BtAZapCKUX M6HCKU CbK>3, CKOpO 

Te nperpi>iiiaT napTMMHaTa amhmh b 
ocb)KAaHeTo Ha <^eMMHM3Ma m ro o6h- 
BHBaT 3a wCenapaTMSTtM" ot coiiMaAMC- 
TMnecKaTa amhma. Ylpe3 1903 r., KaKTO 
Bene 6e cnoMeHaTo, couMaAMCTKMTe 

M3AM3aT OT B>KC HeAOBOAHM OT He- 

tobmh „HaAKAacoB a m „HaAnap™eH" 
xapaKTep. no-ia>CHO BeAa BAaroeBa 
3anoHBa a^ M3AaBa „)KeHCKU mpyd", b 
HanaAOTO Ha 1905 r. cb3AaBa n^pBaTa 
o6pa30BaTeAHa coiiMaAAeMOKpaTMHec- 
Ka rpyna Ha pa6oTHMHKM b Co<j)Mfl, a 
npes aBrycT c.r. opraHM3Mpa n'bpBaTa 

KOH(J)epeHl^MH Ha COlIMaAMCTKMTe. 

ToBa npeAM3BMKBa pa3ropeuieHM a^- 
6aTM b napTMMHaTa coiiMaAAeMOKpa- 
TMHecKa npeca. Hhkom bm^ca^t tc3m 
CT>6MTMii KaTO 3anAaxa ot npoTMBO- 
nocTaBKHe Ha npoAeTapcKMTe ^ceHM 
Ha o6ujoto pa6oTHMnecKO A BM>KeHMe - 

TeCHMTe COL^MaAMCTM (KOMTO HO-ICbCHO 

ce „6oAiueBM3MpaT") HaneAo c /\ MMM " 
Ti>p BAaroeB ce oGaBjraaT cpeury ci>- 
uiecTBVBaHeTo Ha „HeyTpaAeH )kchckm 

CbK)3" AO KaTO UIMpOKMTe COlIMaAMCTM 

(3ana3MAM couMaAAeMOKpaTMnecKMH 



Communist International 
Koika Tineva, Tina Kirkova, 
and Stela Blagoeva. 

Another women's leftist 
organization prior to World 
War II was the Women's 
Social-Democratic Union 
(affiliated to the international 
women's socialist movement), 
established in 1921 with the 
aim "to work toward the 
civic and political education 
of working women". Among 
other things, it wanted "to do 
research on the living condi- 
tions of women and children, to attract 
working women to the organization, 
to educate them, and prepare them for 
the realization of socialist ideals" Most 
of its leaders were wives, life-partners, 
sisters, relatives, or friends of prominent 
male activists of the Social-Democratic 
Party (the so-called "broad socialists") 
- for example Yordanka Bozvelieva, 
Vera Sakuzova, Maria Dzhidrova, Yulia 
Sultanova, Kina Konova, and others. 
This comes to confirm the existence of 
a common pattern in European societies 
(as discussed by Marylin Boxer and Jean 
Quataer), namely that women were at- 
tracted to socialist ideas via their male 
relatives. The women's social-democrat- 
ic union was not independent, and one 
of its main goals was "to assist the 'great 
cause' of the Workers' Social-Demo- 
cratic Party". 

The difference between the com- 
munist and the social-democratic vi- 
sions about women's emancipation did 
not concern the final goal of "liberating 
woman from any kind of material and 
moral authority and securing for her 
the conditions for a better, human life" 



34 



cm oGamk BxiocAeACTBwe) noAKpenHT 
cb3AaBaHeTO Ha He3aBMCMMa a<eHCKa 
opraHM3ai^MH. OnwT'bT 3a ci>3AaBaHe 
Ha He3aBMCMMa cTpyKTypa Ha aceHMTe 
coi^waAAeMOKpaTKM b B^ArapM^ ToraBa 
nponaAa, ho tom Mo6wAM3Mpa „6yp>Ko- 
a3HMn" E>KC b ycMAMHTa My Aa o6eAM- 

HM BCMHKM >KeHM-aKTMBMCTKM B CTpa- 

HaTa. /\eBeT toamhm no-icbCHO, npe3 
aBrycT 1914 r., BeAa BAaroeBa npeAce- 
AaTeACTBa ITbpBaTa KOH(J)epeHuwfl Ha 

^CeHCKHTe COLJ,MaAMCTMHeCKM KAy6oBe 

b B-bArapMH, CAeABaMKM cneuwaAHaTa 

MHCTpyKUMfl Ha L(eHTpaAHMH KOMMTeT 

Ha B-bArapcKaTa pa6oTHMnecKa co- 
LtwaAAeMOKpaTMHecKa napTMH (tcchm 
coi^MaAMCTw). KoH<|)epeHUMflTa M36wpa 
LfeHTpaAHa ^ceHCKa kommcmh (npocb- 
mecTByBaAa npe3 1914-1923) HaneAo 
c TwHa KMpKOBa (1914-1923). 

CAeABamaTa CT^nKa b opraHM3M- 
paHeTo Ha ahboto >KeHCKO ABM>KeHne 
e KoH(j)epeHin4HTa Ha xceHume-KOMy- 
HUcntKU npe3 1919 r. ynacTHMHKMTe 
b Ta3M cpema npMHaAAe>KaT Ha cpeAM, 
MHoro 6am3km ao Bene 6oAiueBM3M- 
paHaTa B-bAzapcKa KOMynucmuHecKa 
napmuH (6wBiuMTe xecHM couwaAuc™). 
KoMyHMCTKMTe 3anoHBaT Aa nponaraH- 

AHpaT 6oAUieBMUIKM MAeM ChC CBOHTe 

BecTHMi^M „PaBeHcmBo" (1919-1923) m 
„Pa6omHUHKa" m ynacTBaT b aKUMiiTe 
Ha KoMyHucmuHecKama napmun. Ilpe3 
20-Te roAMHM Ha XX b. hhkom ot aKTM- 

BMCTKMTe Ca OCbA eHM 3a aHTMA'bp^aBHa 

KOMyHMCTMHecKa a^mhoct m eMMrpnpaT 
b C^BeTCKa Pycwa, Me>KAy tax ca M3- 
BecTHMTe (J)yHKi;HOHepKH Ha KoMyuuc- 
munecKux unmepnauuoHaA KoMKa Tw- 
HeBa, TnHa KnpKOBa u GreAa BAaroeBa. 
Caca n^psaTa cBeTOBHa BOMHa 
e cb3AaACHa n APyra AHBa >KeHCKa 
opraHMsauwa - yKencKunm coi^udA- 



- as announced in the newspaper Bla- 
godenstvie (Prosperity). It was rather 
the methods of achieving this same 
goal that were different. Here is how 
Julia Sultanova explains the split in the 
same newspaper issue: "The communist 
women's union wants the unconscious, 
hungry troops to destroy present life 
and build a new life on its ruins, where- 
as the social-democratic women's or- 
ganizations want one conscious part 
of society to transform present life, and 
share its benefits with all the people". In 
1922, the organization of women social 
democrats had 26 local groups with 
about 1,000 members from various pro- 
fessions and backgrounds: half of them 
were housewives, another quarter were 
workers, and the rest were teachers, 
employees, craftswomen, saleswomen, 
as well as a few medical doctors and 
pharmacists. One of its goals was to 
oppose the "communist women's union 
on the left" and the "bourgeois women's 
union" on the right. The newspaper 
Blagodenstvie and its successor - the 
newspaper Nedovolnata (Unsatisfied) 
pleaded for women's civic and political 
rights as a way to accomplish the final 
social-democratic goal - "liberation of 
humankind and prosperity in the whole 
world". Women social democrats insist- 
ed on equal pay for equal work, state 
and social measures to improve health 
and hygiene, state support for the un- 
employed and the poor, as well as on 
good educational and cultural facilities 
for all Bulgarian citizens. They were 
against some provisions in the Code 
Civil, as they wanted to protect chil- 
dren and abolish prostitution, among 
other things. Women social democrats 
were trying to dissociate themselves 



35 




Kuna KoHoea (1872-1952) - ynumeAKa, npesobanKa, ycypna- 
AuemKa u o6uf,ecmBeHUHKa; cbocHosameAKa (1889) u AudepKa 
hu npunmeACKa dpymuuKa. )KencKU kaoh b CeBAueno, ntpsama 
Mecmna couuaAucmunecKa MencKa opzanu3auuH; hachku na 
yKencKun cov^uaAdeMOKpamunecKU cbK)3, Cb3baben npe3 1921 e.; 
noHemna HAeuKa na (fteMUHucmKux) BtAzapcKun mencKU ctf03 
om 1926 2. 

KinaKonova (1872-1952) - teacher, translator, journalist and pu- 
blic figure; co-founder (1889) and subsequently leader ofPrijatelska 
druzhinka. Zhenski klon (Society of Friends. Women's branch) in 
Sevlievo, the first local women's socialist organization; co-founder 
(1901) of the Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz (Bulgarian Women's Union); 
member of the Zhenski Sotsial-demokraticheski Sujuz (Women's 
Social Democratic Union, established in 1921); honorary member 
of the (feminist) Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz (from 1926) 



deMOKpamunecKu cr>w3 (cBi»p3aH c 
Me>KAyHapoAHOTO coiiMaAMCTMHecKO 

>KeHCKO A BM ^ eHMe )- Tom e ocHOsaH 
npe3 1921 r. c ueA „Aa pa6oTM 3a rpa>K- 
AaHCKOTO m noAMTMnecKOTo o6pa30Ba- 

HMe Ha TpyAemMTe ce >KeHM". Me>KAy 
ApyrwTe cm ueAM cbK)3'bT 3aaBHBa >Ke- 
AaHMe a^ M3CAeABa ycAOBMHTa Ha >km- 
bot Ha >KCHMTe m A^uaTa, a^ npMBAMna 
„TpyAOBMTe >KeHM rt ki>m opraHM3ai(MH- 
Ta, a& tm o6pa30Ba m noAroTBH 3a pe- 

aAM3MpaHeTO Ha COIIMaAMCTMHeCKMTe 

MAeaAM. MHoro ot AMAepKMxe Ha Ta3M 
opraHM3ai^MH ca CMipyrM, napTHbop- 

KM, CeCTpM, pOAHMHM MAM npMHTeAKM 
Ha M3BeCTHM MT>>Ke aKTMBMCTM Ha 

Bi>ArapcKaTa pa6oTHMHecKa coiiMaAAe- 
MOKpaTMnecKaTa napTMH (o6eAMHeHa), 
Me>KAy tax KDpAaHKa Bo3BeAMeBa, 
Bepa CaKi>30Ba, MapMH A^^ApoBa, 
KDamh CyATaHOBa, KMHa KoHOBa m ap* 
T03M c^aKT noTB-bpjKAaBa eAHa o6iijo- 
eBponeMCKa 3aKOHOMepHOCT (noA^ep- 
xaHa ot MepMAMH BoKcep m /\>KeMH 
KyeMT^p), a mmchho, ne jkchmtc ca 

npMBAeneHM ICbM COUMaAMCTMHeCKMTe 

MAeM ot TexHMTe poahmhm Mt^ce. /Ken- 
CKUxm couuaAbeMOKpamuHecKU cbW3 



from the "separatist feminist organi- 
zation", but it is clear that their goals 
were quite in tune with the priorities 
and aims of the "bourgeois" Bulgarian 
Women's Union. 

The nationalist women's organiza- 
tion Bulgarian Women 's Union "Love 
for the Motherland" should also be 
mentioned in this context. Although it 
did not play an important role in the 
history of the women's movement in 
Bulgaria, its name brought some com- 
plications in the international contacts 
of the Bulgarian women's movement in 
the inter-war period. This (right-wing) 
organization was established by a small 
group of women in 1926 as part of a 
men's organization, called Rodna Za- 
shtita (National Defense): a "patriotic 
organization, established in the name of 
national preservation" The new organi- 
zation of women outlined its goals in 
the following manner: to work towards 
"uplifting the Bulgarian spirit and peo- 
ple's pride; to stimulate religious feel- 
ings; to shape the Bulgarian woman into 
a patriot who loves everything native 
and fights against harmful foreign influ- 



36 



He e He3aBMCMM ot Mi>>KKaTa coipiaA- 
AeMOKpaTMHecKa ueHTpaAa: eAHa ot 
HeroBMTe rAaBHM 3aAanM e „Aa noAno- 
Mara bcamkoto acao Ha Pa6oTHMHecKa- 
Ta coi^waAAeMOKpaTMHecKa napTMfl". 

CnopeA couwaAAeMOKpaTMHecKMH 
>KeHCKM BecTHMK „BAaeodeHcmBue u 
(1921-1924) pa3AMMMHTa Me>KAy KOMy- 
HMCTMHecKMTe m couwaAAeMOKpaTMHec- 

KMTe BM3MM 3a >KeHCKa eMaHUMnaiJMH He 

ce oTHacHT ao KpaMHaTa ueA - m>AHO 
ocBo6o>KAaBaHe Ha „>KeHaTa" ot BCHKaK- 
Ba MaTepwaAHa w MopaAHa 3aBMCMMOCT 
m ocnrypHBaHe Ha ycAOBMH 3a no-AO- 

6t>P, HOBeiUKH >kmbot, a ao MeTOAMTe 3a 

nocTwraHeTO m. Ot MeHCKux couuaAde- 
MOKpamunecKu ctf03 ce M3MCKBa a^ ce 

npOTMBOnOCTaBH Ha „KOMyHMCTMHeC- 
KMH >KeHCKI4 Cl> K)3 OTAHBO" M Ha „6yp- 
>KOa3HMH >KeHCKM CT>K)3 OTAHCHO". F[pe3 

1922 r. opraHM3ai4MHTa MMa 26 MecTHM 
rpynM c okoao 1000 MAeHKM ot pa3AMM- 
hm npocJ)ecMM m cpeAM: okoao noAOBM- 
HaTa ot thx AOMaKMHM, eAHa neTB^pT ca 

pa60THMMKM, HAeHyBaT CbLLJO yHMTeAKM, 
MMHOBHMHKM, 3aHa^THMMKM, npOAaBaH- 
KM, AeKapKM M (J)apMaueBTKM. BeCTHMK 

„BAaeodeHcmBue" w npoA^A^eHweTO 
My - b. „HedoBOAHarna" (1931-1934), 
nAeA^paT 3a >KeHCKM rpaacAaHCKM m 
noAMTMHecKM npaBa KaTO HanwH a& 
ce nocrarHe KpaMHaTa couMaAAeMOK- 
paTMnecKa rjeA: „ocBo6o>KAeHMe Ha 
HOBenecTBOTO m HanpeA^Ka Ha ueAWH 
cbht". Coi^waAAeMOKpaTKMTe HacTO- 
HBaT 3a eAHaKBO 3anAaujaHe Ha TpyAa 
Ha >KeHMTe m ivrb>KeTe, 3a a^P^^bhh m 
o6mecTBeHM MepKM 3a noAo6paBaHe 
Ha 3ApaBeTO m xwrweHaTa, 3a A^p^aBHa 
noAKpena 3a 6e3pa6oTHMTe m 6eAHM- 
Te, KaKTo m 3a AoSpn o6pa30BaTeAHM 

M KyATypHM MHML[MaTMBM 3a BCMMKM 

G-bArapcKM rpa^cA^HM. Te ce oGflBHBaT 



ences; to shape the Bulgarian mother, 
spouse, daughter, and sister into a per- 
son who sincerely loves everything Bul- 
garian" This ultra-nationalist organiza- 
tion started a campaign against the then 
leader of the Bulgarian Women's Union 
- Julia Malinova. The Rodna Zashtita 
Union insisted that as a Jew, she should 
not stay in charge of the biggest national 
organization of Bulgarian women. Ma- 
linova decided to resign from the BWU 
in order to save the organization. The 
old feminist Bulgarian Women's Un- 
ion, founded in 1901, protested against 
the fact that this organization had "sto- 
len" its name, but in vain. The only thing 
the leaders of the nationalist union were 
ready to do, was to change their organi- 
zation's name to Bulgarian Women's Un- 
ion "Love for the Motherland", Accord- 
ing to Dimitrana Ivanova's memoirs, it 
was during the 1930s that the Union 
"Love for the Motherland" successfully 
attracted some of the members of the 
older Bulgarian Women's Union, At the 
beginning of the 1940s, however, it had 
no more than ten local branches. 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



Bulgarian feminists during that 
period were additionally mobilized 
around such issues as peace, the sexual 
double standard, the abolition of pros- 
titution and other forms of sexual ex- 
ploitation, "equal pay for equal work", 
women's unpaid labor and housework, 
women's participation in political or- 
ganizations, their access to positions 
of authority, the citizenship of married 
women, etc. In the period between 
the two world wars, the women's 
movement in Bulgaria followed and 
duplicated the goals and priorities of 



37 



cpemy hhkom ot noAOKeHMHTa, npeA- 
BMAeHM b Fpa>KAaHCKMH koagkc (Code 
Civil), a Cbiijo 3a 3aiuMTa Ha A^uaTa n 
OTMHHa Ha npocTMTyuMHTa. >KeHMTe 
coi^naAAeMOKpaTKH ce onMTBaT Aa ce 
pa3rpaHMnaT ot „cenapaTMCTKaTa 4>e- 

MMHMCTKa OpraHM3aUMfl", HO HO-6aM3- 

koto 3ano3HaBaHe c TexHMTe MAen m 
ueAM noKa3Ba toahmo cxoactbo c Te3M 
Ha „6yp^oa3HHH" B)KC. 

CoUMaAMCTMTe KaTO UflAO M )KeHMTe 

coi^MaAMCTKM b HacTHOCT pa3rAe>KAaT 
>KeHCKaTa aKTHBHOcT no-cKopo KaTO 

HaCT OT COLJUaAMCTMHeCKOTO A BM >Ke- 

HMe 3a eMaHuwnauMH, otkoakoto KaTO 

CaMOCTOHTeAHa ^eVlHOCT, CbC CBOM 

cneuM(j)MHHM i^eAM. Te BnpBaT, ne >KeH- 
ckoto noAHMHeHMe e 6a3npaHO b Ka- 
nHTaAMCTMHecKaTa CMCTeMa, m BM>KAaT 
coi^waAM3Ma KaTO naHauea 3a bcmhkm 
Heo6ocHOBaHM iiepapxMM, bkaiohmtca- 

HO OHC3M, KOMTO Ce OTHaCHT ao ^CeHMTC 

Pa3pemaBaHeTO Ha „>kchckmh BT>npoc" 
Te CBi»p3BaT c no6eAaTa Ha counaAMC- 

TMHeCKaTa peB0AK)HM5I M CMJITaT, ne to 

me npoM3Tene ot Hen aBTOMaTWHHO. 

Flo Ta3M npMHMHa COUMaAMCTMTe M co- 
l^MaAMCTKMTe OTXBT>pAflT 6yp>KOa3HMH 

(f>eMMHM3'bM, komto ce CTpeMM Aa no- 
CTMrHe paBeHCTBO Me>KAy noAOBeTe b 
paMKMTe Ha cbiijecTByBamaTa counaAHa 
cwcTeMa. B 6T>ArapcKMH CAynaw TOBa ce 
OTHaca HaM-Bene 3a npMHaAAe>KamMTe 

KI>M HaM-KpaMHOTO M AOTMaTHMHO KpM- 
AO Ha COUMaAMCTMHeCKOTO ABM>KeHMe. 

KaKTo Bene CTaHa hcho, pecJ)opMMCT- 

KOTO KpMAO OT 6l>ArapCKMK COUMaAM- 
3T>M (Ha IUMpOKMTe COUMaAMCTM, KOMTO 

eBOAioMpaT cAeA ITbpBaTa cBeTOBHa 

BOMHa KT?M COl^MaAAeMOKpai^MHTa M 
Ce OTAeAflT OT OpTOAOKCaAHMTe TeCHM 
COUMaAMCTM) Cb3AaBa CbllJO CBOH Co6- 

CTBeHa, noAMTwnecKM no-aKTMBHa M 



the international women's movement. 
It also mirrored the features, ambi- 
guities, and tensions within the various 
world organizations of women. Social- 
ists in general, and women socialists, 
in particular, considered women's 
activism as part and parcel of the so- 
cialist emancipation movement rather 
than as a movement in its own right 
with specific goals. They believed that 
women's subordination was inherent in 
the capitalist system and saw socialism 
as panacea for all types of unjustifi- 
able hierarchies, including those that 
concerned women. The solution of 
the "woman's question" was tied to the 
victory of the socialist revolution and 
considered automatically solved by 
it. For that reason, socialists rejected 
bourgeois feminists, who focused on 
achieving gender equality within the 
existing social system. In the Bulgar- 
ian case, this was especially true for the 
most orthodox and dogmatic branch of 
socialists. It was the reformist trend of 
Bulgarian socialism ("broad" socialism 
that evolved after World War I into 
social democracy, as separate from the 
orthodox "narrow socialists") which 
developed a politically more active 
and a publicly visible women's organi- 
zation of its own. The leftist women's 
organizations - the one attached to 
Bolshevism, and the other affiliated 
with the social democrats - dissociated 
themselves from "bourgeois feminists". 
For them all feminist efforts smacked 
of bourgeois ideas, and forbade the 
cooperation with bourgeois women's 
groups, naming them "separatists" (i.e. 
separate from the socialist movement). 
During the first decade of the 20th 
century these socialist attacks as well as 



38 



ny6AMMHO no-BMAMMa }KeHCKa opraHM- 
3ai^MH. A BeTe AeBM yKencKu opraHM3a- 
ijmm - npMBAeneHaTa kijm 6oAineBM3Ma 

M CBT>p3aHaTa CT>C COL[MaAAeMOKpaL^M^- 

Ta - ce pa3rpaHMHaBaT ot „6yp>Koa3HMH 
4)eMMHM3T)M < '. Te noA03wpaT bcmhkm 4>e- 

MMHMCTKM VCMAMfl B 6yp>KOa3eH yKAOH 
M 3a6paHflBaT CbTpyAHMHeCTBOTO c 

6ypxoa3HM ^ceHCKM rpynw, HapMnaMKM 
im „cenapaTMCTw" (ot coi^waAMCTM- 
necKOTO ABM^KeHwe). Ilpe3 m>pBOTo 
AeceTMAeTMe Ha XX b. Te3M coijMaAMc- 

TMMeCKM aTaKM, KaKTO M BAMHHMeTO Ha 

Me>KAyHapoAHMTe >kchckm opraHM3a- 
iimm cAeA cb3AaBaHeTo Ha TKeucKUH co- 
UfUaAUcmunecKU UHmepnau^uoHaA npes 
1907 r. (KoraTo ^ceHMTe coi^waAMCTKM 
AeKAapwpaT cBOHTa npMBT>p3aHOCT ktjM 
MAe^Ta 3a ^eHCKM M36wpaTeAHM npa- 
Ba), AOBe^KAaT ot paAMKaAM3MpaHe Ha 

BT>ArapCKMH 5KCHCKM C1>K)3 M &Q pa>KAa- 

HeTo Ha CftK)3a n Pannonpasue a . KaKTO 
Bene 6e cnoMeHaTO, CAeA 1908-1909 r. 

ABeTe OpraHM3ai^MH BKAIOHBaT b cboh 

AHeBeH peA „6op6aTa 3a rpa>KAan- 
cko m noAMTHHecKO paBHonpaBwe Ha 

>KeHMTe" ripM T03M aHTarOHM3I>M Ha 

coi^waAMCTKHTe HMKaK He e cAynawHO, 
ne 6i>ArapcKMTe <j>eMMHMCTKM, no- 
Ao6ho Ha (J)eMMHMCTKMTe Apyr^A^, ce 
CTpaxyBaT ot norpeiimo npeACTaB^me 
Ha THXHaTa o6mecTBeHa aKTMBHocT. B 

CepMH OT CTaTMM, ny6AHKVBaHJ4 BT>B b. 

yy/KencKu ZAac" npe3 20-Te toamhm Ha 
XX b., AMAepKaTa Ha B)KC A MMMT P aHa 
MBaHOBa o6ncH>iBa CMMCbAa Ha (J)eMM- 
HM3Ma m ce npoTMBonocTaBH Ha ohmtm- 

Te Ha HflKOM nepMOAMHHM M3AaHMH A a 
TO OTT>>KAeCTBflT C KOMyHMCTMHeCKOTO 

(GoAiiieBMiuKOTo) pa36wpaHe 3a >KeHCKa 
eMaHi^Mnai^MH. Th ce oGaBHBa npoTMB 
onpocTeHOTO npeACTaBHHe Ha (J)eMM- 
HM3Ma KaTO „6op6a Ha >KeHaTa cpeury 



the developments within the interna- 
tional women's organizations after the 
establishment of the Socialist Women's 
International in 1907 (when socialist 
women declared their commitment to 
suffrage) led to a radicalization of the 
Bulgarian Women's Union and to the 
birth of the Union Ravnopravie. As 
mentioned before, from 1908-1909 
onwards, the two organizations in- 
cluded in their agenda the "struggle for 
women's civic and political equality". 
Like feminism elsewhere, Bulgarian 
feminism was the ideology of middle- 
class urban women, but (as in some 
other underdeveloped East European 
peasant societies), feminist activities 
addressed the problems of peasant 
women, too. Bulgarian feminists - like 
feminists elsewhere, feared that their 
public activities might be misunder- 
stood. In a series of articles, published 
in the newspaper Zhenski glas during 
the 1920s, the chairwoman of the BWU 
Dimitrana Ivanova explained the mean- 
ing of feminism, trying to counter the 
attempts of some periodicals to present 
it as synonymous with the communist 
(Bolshevik's) understanding of women's 
emancipation. She argued against the 
misrepresentation of feminism as "a 
woman's fight against her 'natural' du- 
ties imposed on her by religion, family, 
and society" or as favoring "bubikopf, 
boulevard, and cabaret women, women 
of sports, of cigarettes, and alcoholic 
drinks" that nourished anti-feminist 
sentiment within society. 

The women's movement and femi- 
nist ideas were part of the overall proc- 
ess of modernization/ Europeanization 
- which proved to be ambiguous in 
Bulgaria both before and under the 



39 



HeMHMTe „eCTeCTBeHM 3aA"bA>KeHMfl, 

HaAO^ceHM k ot peAMrMH, ceMencTBO 
m o6mecTBo" MAM ITbK KaTO npaKTMKa, 
kohto e noABAacTHa Ha „6y6MKon4>, 
Ha 6yAeBapAHM m Ka6apeTHM >KeHM, Ha 

)KeHM CnopTMCTKM M Ha OHC3M >KeHM, 

komto o6MMaT i^MrapMTe m aAKOxoAHMTe 
nMTMeTa", komto Ha npaKTMKa noAxpaH- 

BaT aHTM^eMMHMCTKMTe CaHTMMeHTM B 

uhaoto ToraBauiHO o6iuecTBO. 

B aHTM^eMMHMCTKMH (aHTMMOAGp- 
HMCTKM) M Hai^MOHaAMCTMHeCKM KOH- 

TeKCT Ha 6*bArapcKOTo o6iuecTBo caca 
ITbpBaTa cseTOBHa BOMHa Tpn6Ba a& ce 
cnoMeHe m KpaMHo HauMOHaAMCTMHec- 
KaTa ^ceHCKa opraHM3aiiMH BvAzapcKU 
MeHCKu ct>H>3 „Aw6ob kj>m PodiiHa- 
ma". B^npeKM ne th He Mrpae 3HaMM- 

Ma pOAH B MCTOpMHTa Ha >KeHCKOTO 

ABM>KeHMe b Bi>ArapMH, hcmhoto MMe 
npeAM3BMKBa M3bccthm 3aTpyAHeHMH b 
Me^<Ay H ap o A H MTe KOHTaKTM Ha G^Arap- 

CKOTO >KeHCKO ABM)KeHMe B MOKAyBOeH- 

hmh nepnoA- Ta3M A^CHa opramisauMfl 
e CB3AaAeHa ot MaAKa rpyna >kchm npe3 
1926 r. KaTO nacT ot mt>>kkmh Cvk)3 
„Podna 3au4,uma" - „naTpMOTMHHa 
opraHM3ai;MH, ocHOBana b mmcto Ha 
Hai^MOHaAHOTO cbxpaHHBaHe" HosaTa 
>KeHCKa opraHM3ai^MH onepTaBa cbomtc 
ueAM no CAeAHM^ HaHMH: a& pa6ora 3a 
„noBAMraHe" Ha ^TjArapcKMH A vx " M 
Hai^MOHaAHa ropAOCT; a& CTMMyAMpa 
peAMrM03HMTe nyBCTBa; Aa (J)OpMM- 
pa „6T>ArapcKaTa >KeHa naTpnoTKa" 
o6M4auia bcmhko poaho m 6opeiua ce 
cpeiny „BpeAHMTe hv>kam bahxhmx"; 
Aa BT^nHTa 6"bArapcKaTa Manxa, cb- 
npyra, A^mepa m cecTpa KaTO amh- 

HOCT, KOflTO MCTMHCKM o6MHa BCMMKO 

6i>ArapcKO. Ta3M HauMOHaAMCTMnecKa 
opraHM3ai^MH npeAnpMeMa KaMnaHwa 
cpemy ToraBaniHaTa AMAepKa Ha B>KC 



auspices of the Bulgarian nation state. 
Alongside elements of amelioration 
and "progress" it showed shady and 
untoward aspects. Although being 
part of the modernizing agenda and 
of the overall national project, wom- 
en's emancipation in particular was 
very poorly realized. Citizenship was 
slow in coming to women. They had to 
struggle for the right to education, for 
civil and political rights, for access to 
professions, etc. Suffrage for men and 
women here, as in many other coun- 
tries, was separated by several decades. 
State measures restricting women re- 
veal a differential treatment of female 
and male citizens by a seemingly "all 
the nation's" state. More importantly, 
various de facto exclusions of women 
dominated in the public sphere. In 
many respects the relations between 
women and men remained embedded 
in the hierarchical gender structure 
of traditional society. Women experi- 
enced to a greater extent the tensions 
between "traditional" and "modern", 
"urban" and "peasant" "native" and 
"foreign". 

The Bulgarian pre-communist 
experience of various women's move- 
ments fits into more comprehensive 
patterns that are common in many 
places. It confirms that the social 
contract in "liberal democracy" was 
actually "a fraternal social contract"; 
women and men were integrated dif- 
ferently into the national project, so 
that modernity and its concepts of "cit- 
izen" and "civil society" must, to a very 
great extent and for a very long time, 
be read in masculine terms, hence, the 
similarities in women's demands and 
actions worldwide, as well as the com- 



40 



K)AMfl MaAMHOBa, HaCTOHBaMKM, ne 

KaTo eBpewKa th He Moace Aa pt>koboam 
o6moHai|MOHaAHaTa opraHii3auMH Ha 
6i>ArapcKMTe aceHu, OnaceHMHTa Ha 
IOamh MaAMHOBa, ne aTaKMTe cpemy 
Hen MoraT a& HaBpeAflT Ha B)KC, a Ka- 
paT a^ ce oTTerAM ot npeAceAaTeACKMH 
nocT m a^ npeAAO>KM 3a cboa HacAeA- 
HMMKa /\ MMMT P aHa MBaHosa. BtAaap- 
CKuxm yceHCKU cbW3 Bene noA HewHO 
P^koboactbo Hanpa3HO npoTecTMpa 
cpemy (f>aKTa, ne HOBaTa opraHH3aunfl 
e „OTKpaAHaAa" mmcto m. EAMHCTBe- 
hoto Heiuo, KOeTO AMAepKMTe Ha ho- 
bma ci>K)3 npaBAT, e a^ npw6aBflT kt>m 
MMeTO Ha opraHM3ai^MHTa cm „Aw6ob 
kkm Podunama". Flpe3 30-Te toamhm Ha 
XX b. Ci>H>3^m „Ak>6ob ki>m Podunama" 
ycneuiHO npHBAiina hhkom ot HAeHKMTe 
Ha (J>eMMHMCTKMH B)KC. B^npeKM TOBa 
o6ane b HanaAOTO Ha 40-Te toamhm 
„Ak>6ob K-bM Podunama" MMa He noBene 
ot 10 perwoHaAHM opraHM3auMM. 

BT>ArapcKMTe 4 )eMMHMCTKM » pa6o- 

TMAM CAeA n-bpsaTa CBeTOBHa BOMHa, 

ca aHra>KMpaHM ci>mo c Bi>npocM KaTo: 
BOMHaTa m MMpa; MCKaHeTO 3a „paBHo 
3anAamaHe 3a paBeH TpyA" w >KeHCKMH 
6e3nAaTeH TpyA b ceMewcTBOTo; ynac- 
TweTo Ha >KeHM b noAMTMHecKMTe opra- 

HM3aUMM; TeXHMH AOCTi>n ao n03Ml^MM 

bt>b BAacTTa; rpa>KAaHCKMH 6paK, rpa>K- 

AaHCTBOTO M (J>aMMAHOTO MMe Ha OMT>- 

>KeHMTe TKenu; OTMHHaTa Ha perAaMeH- 
TMpaHaTa npocTMTyuMH n APyrw 4>opMH 
Ha ceKcyaAHa eiccnAoaTauMH; a bomhm * 
MopaAeH CTaHAapT Ha o6iuecTBOTo: no- 
3BOAMTeAeH m BcenpomaBam 3a Mi>>KeTe 

M peCTpMKTMBeH M CTMrMaTM3Mpam 

>KeHCKMH noA m t. h. B nepMOAa Me>KAy 

ABeTe CBeTOBHM BOMHM >KCHCKOTO ABM- 

^ceHwe b B'bArapwH cAeABa m penAMKwpa 
ueAMTe m npMopwTeTMTe Ha Me>KAyHa- 



mon agenda of international women's 
organizations. 

Bulgarian activists attended many 
of the congresses of the international 
women's organizations. It is impossible 
to mention all of them, but one event 
deserves special attention from the 
point of view of the Bulgarian worn- 
ens movement - namely, the Congress 
of the IAWSEC in Istanbul on April 
18th-25th, 1935. The fact that this or- 
ganization held its congress in the east 
was considered symptomatic, and was 
seen as a sign of tightening the connec- 
tions between the women's movements 
in the west and the east. The election 
of Dimitrana Ivanova's to the Board 
of the IAWSEC was yet another sign 
of international recognition for the 
Bulgarian women's movement. (Dimi- 
trana Ivanova was nominated by Mrs. 
Theodoropoulou, chairwoman of the 
Greek League for Woman's Rights and 
until then a member of the board of the 
IAWSEC), As a result, the Bulgarian 
Women's Union could keep better con- 
tacts with the IAWSEC and synchro- 
nize its own agenda and activities with 
international women's actions on such 
issues as political and economic equal- 
ity, equal morality for both women and 
men, legal gender equality, the cooper- 
ation of women east and west, etc. Dur- 
ing the fall of 1935 and in the spring of 
1937, Ivanova took part in the meetings 
of the Board in Amsterdam and Zurich. 
At the Amsterdam meeting, the Board 
decided that she should represent the 
IAWSEC at two Balkan congresses for 
the protection of children that were to 
be held in Athens and Belgrade, respec- 
tively. At the Zurich meeting Dimitrana 
Ivanova reported about the victory of 



41 




HAeHKama na Apywecm- 
Bomo ua 6-bAzapKume c 
Buciue o6pa30Banue b 
MemdyBoeHHux nepuod 
MnaHKa AKpa6osa- 
yKauboBa (p. 1911 z.) 
dnec, Mail 2006 z. 

The former member of 
the Druzhestvoto na 
bulgarkite s visshe obra- 
zovanie (Association of 
Bulgarian Women Univ- 
ersity Graduates) Ivanka 
Akrabova-Zhandova 
(b. 1911) today, May 2006 



■:'.■>■':■ 



pOAHOTO >KCHCKO A BM >^eHMe. To CbU\Q 

Tana 0Tpa3HBa nepTMTe, npoTMBope- 

HMHTa M Hanpe>KeHMHTa . B pa3AMHHMTe 

CBeTOBHM ^CeHCKM opraHM3aiiMM. 

>KeHCKOTO A BM:>KeHMe M 4 )eMpt " 

hmctkhtc MAew ca nacT ot 6i>Arap- 
CKaTa MOAepHM3ai^Ma/eBponeM3ai^MH 
- npouec, komto KaKTO npeAM, Taxa 
m CAeA cb3AaBaHeTO Ha 6T)ArapcKaTa 
HaiiMOHaAHa A^P^asa ce OKa3Ba mho- 
ro npoTMBopeHMB. HapeA c eAeMeHTM 
Ha noAo6peHwe m „nporpec" tom e 

Cbn^TCTBaH OT TT>MHM M HeOHaKBaHM 

acneKTM. CneiiMaAHO >KeHCKaTa eMaH- 
iiMnaiiMH, MaKap m nacT ot MOAepHM3a- 

IIMOHHMH AHeBeH peA M HaUMOHaAHMH 

npoeKT, e ocbinecTBeHa TBtpAe Hecb- 

BljpUieHO. Tpa^CAaHCTBOTO Ha >KeHMTe 

ce peaAM3npa kt>cho m 6aBHO. Ha thx 
mm ce HaAara a& ce 6opjrr 3a npaBOTO 
cm Ha o6pa30BaHMe, 3a rpa>KAaHCKM 
m noAMTMMecKM npaBa, 3a AOCTT>n A° 
npo(J)ecMMTe m t.h. M36MpaTeAHMTe 
npaBa sa MT>>KeTe TyK, KaKTO b MHoro 
Apyrn CTpaHM, MsnpesapBaT c hhkoako 
AeceTMAeTMH Te3M Ha ^ceHMTe. /Vbp>*caB- 
HMTe MepKM no OTHOineHMe Ha ^ceHMTe 
pa3KpMBaT KaK Hai^MOHaAHaTa Ai>p^aBa 



Bulgarian women, who 
had been granted partial 
voting rights in January 
1937. She gave a speech on 
the activities of Bulgarian 
women that led to their 
enfranchisement (before 
France, Yugoslavia, Que- 
bec, Canada, and Swit- 
zerland, as she proudly 
pointed out). Ivanova was 
re-elected member of the 
Board at the Copenhagen 
Congress of the IAWSEC 
in 1939, and was elected 
president of the International Commis- 
sion for the Protection of Motherhood 
(of the same organization). 

The activities of the two interna- 
tional women's organizations - ICW 
and IAWSEC - (though the wide 
spread opinion that the first one was 
more conservative while the second 
one - more liberal) were very similar 
at that time. Their conferences and 
congresses actually played the role of 
a women's world parliament. By then, 
most of the European countries had 
two national women's organizations. 
The one was usually named National 
Women's Union (or Council) and was 
a member of the ICW, whereas the 
other - working to guarantee women's 
rights in all the spheres of society, was 
a member of the IAWSEC. In some 
countries, such as Bulgaria and Czech- 
oslovakia, there was only one women's 
organization, which united all local 
women's associations. These national 
"umbrella" organizations worked for 
women's rights and were members of 
the two major international women's 
organizations. 



42 



AMCKpMMMHMpa >KeHMTe, BMecTO (npeA~ 
noAaraeMo) A a 3auiwTaBa eAHaKBO mh- 
TepecMTe Ha bcmhkm cbom rpa^AaHM. B 
ny6AMHHOTo npocTpaHCTBo a° mmhm " 

paT M pa3AMHHM C^aKTMHeCKM I43KAI0H- 
BaHMH Ha ^KeHCKMH noA. B MHoro OT- 
HOUieHMH B3aHMOOTHOIUeHMHTa Me>KAy 

^eHMTe m Mi>>KeTe ocTaBaT 6a3wpaHM 
Ha MepapxMMecKaTa noAOBa cTpyKTypa 
b TpaAMi^MOHHOTO o6iuecTBO. >KeHMTe 
M3nMTBaT Hanpe^ceHMHTa mokay » T P a ~ 
Amhmohho" w „MOAepHo" „rpaACKo" m 
„ceACKo", „poAHo" m „hv>kao". 

Bi>ArapcKMKT npeAKOMyHMCTM- 

necKM onMT c aceHCKiiTe &BnyKeHVix 
Ham>AHO noTB'bp^cA^Ba eAHa o6ma 
cxeMa. CnopeA Hen o6mecTBeHMHT a°- 
rosop b AMGepaAHaTa AeMOKpauMH e b 
AewcTBHTeAHOCT „6paxcKM o6iqecTBeH 
AoroBop", a )KCHMTe w MtoKeTe ca iiHTer- 

pMpaHM pa3AI4HHO B HaUMOHaAHMfl IipO- 

eKT, Taxa ne MOAepHOCTTa m noHHTWRTa 
„rpa^A^HM" m „rpa^cA a HCKO o6mecTBo" 
Tpn6Ba b MHoro roAHMa CTeneH m 3a 
MHoro A^A-br nepnoA A a G^a^t neveuM b 

„M1)>KKM" TepMMHM. OTTyK M npMAMKM- 

Te b MCKaHM^Ta Ha 6i>ArapcKMTe >kchm c 
Te3M no CBeTa, onyx m o6ihmht ahcbch 
peA Ha GisArapcKMTe w Ha MOKAyHa- 
poAHMTe yKeucKW opraHi43auMi4. KaKTO 
Bene 6e cnoMeHaTO, npeACTaBMTeAKH 
Ha BijArapMii ynacTBaT b KOHrpecwTe 
Ha TC3M MexAyHapoAHH cjpopyMM oiye 
ot HanaAHMTe toamhh Ha thxhoto ct>- 
mecTByBaHe, Ilpe3 30-Te toawhm Ha 
XX b. AMAepxaTa Ha B>KC ,A, MMMT P aHa 
1/lBaHOBa e M36paHa Aopw b 6opAa Ha 
MemdyHapodnuM aAuanc na Meuume 
- 3a np^B ni>T Ha KOHrpeca My b McTaH- 
6yA (1935), a Ha KOHrpeca b KoneHxareH 
(1939) e npeM36paHa. B-bAzapcKuxm 
mencKu cbtos npweMa M36opa Ha /\m- 
MMTpaHa MBaHOBa KaTO 3HaK 3a mokav- 



♦ ♦♦ 



The political and military block Little 
Entente was established in 1920-1921 
with the goal of defending the status 
quo in Central and Southeastern Europe 
after World War I. It included Czecho- 
slovakia, Romania, and the Kingdom of 
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In February 
1934, a similar structure - the Balkan 
Entente, was founded in Athens, includ- 
ing Greece, Romania, Turkey, and Yugo- 
slavia. It had similar goals - to maintain 
the status quo in the Balkan Peninsula, 
and to neutralize the Bulgarian position 
for a revision of the Peace Treaty ofNeu- 
illy. Bulgaria and Albania refused to sign 
this agreement. 

Following these initiatives, in May 
1923, women activists from several Bal- 
kan countries - Yugoslavia (the King- 
dom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes), 
Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Poland, and 
Czechoslovakia created in Rome the 
Little Entente of Women (LEW), mod- 
eled after the above-mentioned political 
formation. The Bulgarian participation 
there - represented by the national 
branch of the Women's International 
League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) 
- is somewhat ambiguous and against 
the logic of regional political unions. 
As a defeated country, Bulgaria had lit- 
tle to do with an organization formed by 
representatives of the victorious states 
that were supporters of the status quo. 
On the other hand, the Bulgarian pres- 
ence there showed women's wish to act 
independently from the political objec- 
tives of the national state. Conferences 
were held (in Belgrade, 1924; Athens, 
1925; Prague, 1927; Warsaw, 1929) to 
monitor progress on women's issues in 
the member countries. These encour- 



43 



;.jH ..* 


Mana Hukoaobo,- 
FbA^asa 

(p. 1 908 z.) - ebua 


j^flR 


om ntpBume 
6tAzapcKU 
\ „yuuBepcumemcKU 
menu " buec, 

■ 

cenmeuBpu 2006 2. 


1 1 


■ Zhana Nikolova- 
Gulubova (b. 1908) 
- one of the first 
Bulgarian "univer- 
sity women" today, 
September, 2006 





HapoAHOTo npM3HaHwe Ha 6*bArapcKO- 
to ^ceHCKO ABM>KeHMe. FIpe3 1923 r. 
npeACTaBMTeAKM Ha Ei>ArapMH (m no- 
cneunaAHO Ha B&Azapcjcama ceKU,ux 
ua Meyfcdynapodnama wencua Auza 3a 
uup u CBo6oda), m to npoTMB AorwKaTa 

Ha perMOHaAHMTe nOAMTMHeCKM CbK)3M, 

ynacTBaT b CT>3AaBaHeTo Ha MaAKama 
anmauma ua yceHume (Little Entente 
of Women), b kohto ocseH 6i>ArapKMTe 
ce BKAioHBaT caMO npeACTaBMTeAKM 
Ha CTpaHMTe-no6eAMTeAKM b n^pBaTa 
CBeTOBHa BOMHa: HexocAOBaKMH, Py- 

MT>HMfl, K)rOCAaBMH M FbpiIHJI. FIpMCb- 

CTBweTO Ha 6*bArapKM b Ta3M opraHM3a- 
iimh cBMAeTeACTBa 3a ^ceAaHMeTO mm a& 

AeMCTBaT He3aBMCMMO OT nOAMTMHeC- 

KMTe 3aAaHM Ha HauMOHaAHaTa A^P^a- 
Ba m as noAA^P>KaT uinpoKM KOHTaKTM 
KaKTO c Me>KAyHapoAHMTe, Taica m c 
perMOHaAHMTe >kchckm opraHM3auMM m 

ABM)KeHMH. W AOpM CaMO Te3M HHKOAKO 

npMMepa ca AOCTaTT>HHM, sa A& ce bmam 
HecbCTOHTeAHOCTTa Ha apryMeHTa Ha 

M3BeCTHMH 6pMTaHCKM MCTOpMK EpMK 

Xo6c6ayM, komto tbt>pam, ne b icpaa Ha 
XIX m HanaAOTO Ha XX b. „b ycAOBunma 
na MUBom Ha zoAXMa nacm om Menu- 



aged joint actions on a variety of 
issues such as equalizing voting 
rights, the protection of children 
and minorities, reforms in the 
treatment of children born out 
of wedlock, the abolishment of 
capital punishment, and favor- 
ing the teaching of civilization 
rather than war in history class- 
es. (Among the leaders of the 
LEW were the Romanian activist 
Alexandrina Cantacuzino, the 
Serbian activist Petkovitch, Avra 
Theodoropoulou from Greece, 
and the Polish feminist Justyna 
Budziriska-Tylicka.) 

The above-mentioned developments 
provide strong argumentation against 
some simplistic generalizations about 
the women's movements in the Balkans 
and some other regions, as contained, 
for example, in the following conclu- 
sions by Eric Hobsbawm: "In the con- 
ditions of the great majority of world's 
women, those who lived in Asia, Africa, 
Latin America and the peasant socie- 
ties of Southern and Eastern Europe or 
indeed in most agrarian societies, there 
was as yet no change whatsoever' 

While it is true that, in comparison 
with the developed West, the middle 
and the upper strata of society were 
rather modest in South-Eastern Europe, 
here, too, they produced "a small but 
unprecedented number of women who 
were active" and distinguished enough 
in fields previously confined entirely to 
men. There are many names of promi- 
nent women activists in the region 
worth mentioning such as: Vela Blago- 
eva, Anna Karima, Dimitrana Ivanova, 
Elissaveta Karamichailova from Bulgar- 
ia, Callirhoe Parren and Avra Theodo- 



44 



me no CBema - oh63u, kouvho ytcuBeeAU 
b A3ux, AcfopuKa, AamuncKa AMepwca 
u ceACKume o6ut,ecmBa b JOytna u M3- 
moHHa EBpona uau b noBenemo azpap- 
hu o6iu ( ecmBa 1 ue e umclao KaKBamo u 
da 6uao npoMHHa". 

BapHO e, ne 3a pa3AMKa ot pa3- 
bmtmh 3anaA b K)roM3TOHHa EBpona 
cpeAHMTe m (ome no-MaAo6poMHMTe) 

BMC1IIM COl^MaAHM CAOeBe Ca CKpOMHM, 

ho m tvk, ct>iho KaKTo Ha 3anaA, Te 
ci>3AaBaT „MaAT>K, ho 6e3npeqeAeHTeH 

6pOM >KeHM, KOMTO Ca aKTMBHH" M A<>- 
CTaT'bMHO M3HBCHH B o6AaCTM, KOMTO B 
MMHaAOTO Ca 6MAM MOHOnOA eAMHCTBe- 
HO Ha MT>>KKMfl nOA. TOBa Ca AMHHOCTM 

KaTo BeAa BAaroeBa, AHHa KapMMa, 
AwMMTpaHa MBaHOBa b Bi>ArapMji, Ka- 
AMpoe riapeH b rbpuMH, KaAMnco Bo- 
Te3 m AAeKcaHApMHa KaHTaKy3MHO b 
PyMi>HMH, OaTMa AAwe xaH^M m XaAM- 
Ae EAwn (AAMBap) b TypuMJi, AparoMAa 
^IpHeBMH m MapMH K)pMH-3aropKa b 

X"bpBaTCKO, /\P ara A e ^ HOBMH M Mcm- 

Aopa CeKyAMH b Ct>p6mh m np. 

KoraTO ce roBopw 3a >KeHCKOTo 
ABM^KeHwe b K)roM3TOHHa EBpona m 
b BT>ArapnH b nacTHOCT, He Tpn6Ba Aa 
ce 3a6paBH m eAHa uaAa nAeflAa >kchm 
c ycneuiHa npo(j>ecMOHaAHa peaAii- 
3auwfl. TexHMHT >kmbot m npMMep ca 
He nO'MaAKo Ba>KHM 3a HacTi»nMAMTe 

npOMeHM B TpaAMl^HOHHMTe BM3MM 

m npeApa3CT>Ai>J4w no oTHOineHwe 
Ha KanecTBaTa Ha >KeHMTe n THXHaTa 

„CT>A6a". llpO(J)eCI10HaAMCTKM KaTO 

AexapKaTa a~P AHacTacMH ToAOBMHa 
mam nncaTeAKaTa OaHM IlonoBa-My- 
Ta(^OBa, Bi>npeKM ne He ce aHra^cnpaT 

npjiKO c 4 )eMMHMCTKOTO A BM>KeHMe » 
CAy^caT cbc cboh >kmbot m nocTM>Ke- 

hmh 3a poAeBM MOAeA Ha npocJ)ecMO- 

HaAHO aKTMBHMTC >KeHM. 



ropoulou from Greece, Calypso Botez 
and Alexandrina Cantacuzino from Ro- 
mania, Fatma Aliye Hanum and Halide 
Edip (Adivar) from Turkey, Dragojla 
Jarnevic and Maria Juric-Zagorka from 
Croatia, Draga Dejanovic and Isidora 
Sekulic from Serbia, and many others. 

At the same time we should not 
forget those extraordinary individual 
women whose lives and professional 
achievements were no less important for 
changing traditional visions and preju- 
dices about women's qualities and "pre- 
destination" Although not engaged in the 
feminist movement itself, professional 
women such as Anastasia Golovina and 
Fani Popova-Mutafova, have served as 
role models for other professional women 
with their own work and achievements. 

The women's movement in Bulgaria 
was a part of the international women's 
movement from which it took some of 
its priorities, arguments, and strate- 
gies. International gatherings and ac- 
tions of women helped in building the 
first women's networks and in creating 
a feeling of belonging to the interna- 
tional women's emancipatory move- 
ment, of sharing the idea of the "new 
woman" and the ideology of feminism. 
Like Karen Offen, today we hope that 
the knowledge about feminist past can 
serve to overturn "every prejudice and 
antifeminist superstition that is still 
rooted in public opinion" (especially in 
our part of Europe, where the history of 
feminisms is largely unwritten). What is 
more, such knowledge can help recon- 
sider claims about "the special course" 
taken in the national history of women 
in every country, and increase toler- 
ance and understanding across women's 
movements and actions in our time. 



45 



M3IIOA3BAHA AMTEPATYPA 
















/\acKaAOBa, KpacwMMpa. KtM ucmopuHma na coi^uaAHume dBUMteHux b 
BtAzapux: 6tAzapcKume cfieMUHU3MU (1857-1944). - B: KyATypaTa: rpaHMUM m 
ci>ceACTBa. B necT Ha npo(f>. MBaH CTecJ)aHOB. Obcr. A aHMeAa KoAesa m Mana 
TpeKOBa. YHMBepcMTeTCKa 6i46AMOTeKa N Q 441. Cocfmn: YHMBepcMTeTCKO M3Aa- 
TeACTBO „Cb. Kammcht OxpMACKii", 2005, 301-334. 

AacicaAOBa, KpacnMiipa \\ PafiHa TaBpnAOBa (ci>ct.). TpauuUfU ua zpayn- 
daucmBomo: eBponeucKume Menu Mewtdy mpadut^unma u Modepnocmma. Co- 
4>mh: AMK, 2001. 

/\acKaAOBa, KpacuMnpa (ct>ct.). Om CHHKama na ucmopuxma: yKenume b 
6i>AzapcKomo o6w,ecmBo u KyAmypa. C6opHMK c TeKCTOBe. CocJ)mh: AMK, 1998. 

AacKaAOBa, KpaciiMii pa. /KeucKomo dBumenue b B&Azapux npe3 npu3Mama 
na eduH MUBom (/\uMumpaHa Mbuhobu). - McTopMHecKM nperAeA* 1998, N^ 5-6, 
204-217. 

Ha3i»pcKa, >Kop>KeTa. yHUBepcumemcKomo o6pa30Banue u 6'bAzapcKume 
Menu, 1879-1944. CocJmH, 2003. 

HoAaKOsa, MaprapMTa. B-bAzapcKomo wtencKo dBuxceHue npe3 BtspaifcdaHe- 
rno. Coc|)mh, 1994. 













































46 



LITERATURE 




Daskalova, Krassimira (ed.). Ot siankata na istoriata: zhenite v bulgarskoto 
obshtestvo i kultura (From the shadow of history: women in the Bulgarian soci- 
ety and culture. A Reader). Sofia: LIK, 1998. 

Daskalova, Krassimira and Raina Gavrilova (eds.). Granitsi na grazhdan- 
stvoto: evropeiskite zheni mezhdu traditsiata i modernostta (Limits of citizen- 
ship: European women between tradition and modernity). Sofia: LIK, 2001. 

Daskalova, Krassimira. Women, Nationalism and Nation-State in Bulgaria 
(1800- 1940s). - In: Miroslav Jovanovic and Slobodan Naumovic (eds.). Gender 
Relations in South Eastern Europe: Historical Perspectives on Womanhood and 
Manhood in 19th and 20th Century. Belgrade- Graz, 2002, 15-37. 

Daskalova, Krassimira. The Women's Movement in Bulgaria in a Life Story. 
- Women's History Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2004, 91-103. 

Daskalova, Krassimira. Bulgarian Women's Movement (1850s- 1940s). - In: 
Edith Saurer, Margareth Lanzinger and Elisabeth Frysak (eds.). Women's Move- 
ments. Networks and Debates in post-communist Countries in the 19th and 20th 
Centuries (= L'Homme Schriften vol. 13), Boehlau: Koeln / Weimar / Wien, 2006, 
413-437. 

De Haan, Francisca, Krassimira Daskalova, and Anna Lutfi (eds.). A Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms. Central, Eastern 
and South Eastern Europe, 19th - 20th Centuries. Budapest and New York: CEU 
Press, 2006. 

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire, 1875-1914. London, 1999, p. 193. 






Nazarska, Georgeta. The Bulgarian Association of University Women (1924- 
1950). - In: Aspasia. International Yearbook for Women's and Gender History of 
Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe. Vol. 1, 2007. 

Offen, Karen. European Feminisms. 1700-1950 A Political History. Stan- 
ford: Stanford University Press, 2000. 












47